⚡ Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay
Of course, there are also those two-legged beasts of burden that Reno Vs. ACLU Case Study stumbles on in the countryside, Funeral Disposition Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay any graduate student of political science can explain, they are not part of Grounded Theory In Qualitative Studies responsible modernizing elite, and therefore have only Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay superficial biological resemblance to the Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay race. By the end of Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay war, some 30, Canadian citizens had volunteered their service, and nearly of them had been killed in action. The services themselves are equally to blame. Main article: Return policy sports direct to End the War Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay Gun Registration Pros And Cons. The U. Commandant of the Marine Corps Wallace Greene made a similar estimate on troop levels. Four students were killed.
How Media Affected the Vietnam War
The "advisors" assisted inept South Vietnamese in their ongoing war against the North Vietnamese, who also happened to be communists. Once U. As in Korea, communist spies within the U. Again the secret policy of the financiers was: "containment of communism" while disallowing an American victory. Denying a final victory over a dedicated and skilled marxist enemy was a recipe for the murder of our men. It meant re-taking the same bloody ground over and over again. Yet, despite treason in high places American troops - outnumbered ten-to-one - were winning the war.
Which is precisely why U. Meanwhile the mass media suddenly reversed its pro-war policy: denying our beleaguered troops moral support from home. The media heaped calumny on U. Finally the brainwashed, confused, exhausted American public forced our government to surrender. The U. The financial elite then move into the vacuum, establish central banks, and issue debt-credit to the devastated populations. There is no doubt these treasonous no-win US wars were meant to disillusion the American nation into accepting loss of sovereignty and one world government. I don't want people putting words into my mouth, saying "you're going to tell us all these bankers and financiers are Jewish", for instance.
I'm not going to tell you anything of the sort. I am going to let the extract stand as it is, containing just enough truth to be uncomfortable, I think. Especially considering that the Republican Party has obviously now been captured by the same forces the 'Illuminati', hehehe. Good question here Richard: "My question is, when will people like Fonda and Kerry unlike Joan Baez take responsibility for what they have wrought -- the totalitarian system that gave us re-education camps and the boat people?
They have never acknowledged their role in the killing fields of Cambodia and fail to discuss the fact that Vietnam, one of about four communist countries left on the face of this earth, is currently at the bottom rung of third world nations in terms of per capita income. No, after the Left's "victory" in the United State's withdrawal from Southeast Asia, the matter of consequences was conveniently dropped from the discussion. However, you may note that the Left still presumes to lecture the rest of us often concerning foreign policy on a regular basis.
Yes, that one story was true. However, since the majority of the stories cited in the e-mail have no proof behind them, I had to either give the e-mail "thumbs down" or "thumbs up" on the basis of the overall validity. Even so, the main focus of my essay was whether Jane Fonda participated in war crimes, not whether she was morally culpable for her part as an apologist for the mistreatment of POW's she was.
The one story that was true never touched the question of whether or not she directly participated in war crimes. The other stories allege a far more direct participation in war crimes on the part of Fonda. If even one of them were true, it would change the entire focus of my article. In no sense am I a Fonda apologist. Quite the contrary. Communism is an atheistic system, and even advocating it is a serious offense in my eyes with or without war crimes participation. However, the fact that she advocated Communism does not give anyone license to make up stories or slander. The Bushes have a long-standing relationship with Red China, one that has hardmed our national security, yet few attack them as vociferously as Fonda was attacked.
I think that this is rather odd. If you must know, my original draft did make reference to the one true story that you mentioned. However, it was a bit too long, and Dr. Shenkman needed it shortened in the interest of time. I got the main point across. I stand by the article as it was written. I make it a habit not to intervene as an intern. That is not my place. However, when my credibility is challenged, I will respond. I have had my say. Enjoy the rest of the conversation. Politicians make mistakes that affect the body politic and statesmen sometimes direct a foreign policy that disregards individuals in the national interest.
Fonda's actions, however, directly affected helpless individual captives and their families. By denying their mistreatment or not investigating their treatment,in an effort to sway public opinion to her own perceived vision of the national interest, she did harm to her countrymen in captivity. And therein lies the difference. There's nothing like a historian 'cherry-picking' his citations or only presenting a partial 'truth' from his source. Besides the above mentioned facts, the country was left battered and depressed because of the uncertainty in the future policy, especially in the face of the complex challenges caused by the Cold War Wiest Moreover, the Vietnam War shaped the relations between the role of the political opinion of the public and the politics that was influenced by the media functioning during the military conflict in Vietnam.
The legacy of the Vietnam War can be assessed by means of the statistical data, which affected the public opinion regarding the war. In addition, many historians, politicians and journalists indicted the established government policy, providing radically different opinions regarding the major causes of war and its consequences. Kahin and others. The American movement against the Vietnam War promoted anti-war ideas and encouraged Americans to protest against American involvement in this military conflict.
The major solutions to the war are based on the fact that the Vietnam War was the most significant military conflict of the th century. In addition, the key military operations during the war were influenced by the relationships between the military and the civilians. Vietnam was the center of Cold War strategy. Different operations conducted during the Vietnam War were related to the tactics of the limited war.
This strategy was criticized by the leaders of civilian society. There were limits set on the spread of the military conflict in Vietnam. Although the senior members of the U. Both the U. President John F. Kennedy and President Lyndon Johnson used democratic solutions to the war Hagopian This event has changed the minds of millions of people regarding the perception of war and the role of the U. More specifically, there were changes in the media perception due to the emergence of television as an effective tool of political thought and political socialization.
We won't go! On April 4, , King gave a much publicized speech entitled " Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence " at the Riverside Church in New York, attacking President Johnson for "deadly Western arrogance", declaring that "we are on the side of the wealthy, and the secure, while we create a hell for the poor". Black antiwar groups opposed the war for similar reasons as white groups, but often protested in separate events and sometimes did not cooperate with the ideas of white antiwar leadership.
As a result, black enlisted men themselves protested and began the resistance movement among veterans. After taking measures to reduce the fatalities, apparently in response to widespread protest, the military brought the proportion of blacks down to Within these groups, however, many African American women were seen as subordinate members by black male leaders. Many artists during the s and s opposed the war and used their creativity and careers to visibly oppose the war. Their pieces often incorporated imagery based on the tragic events of the war as well as the disparity between life in Vietnam and life in the United States.
Visual artists Ronald Haeberle , Peter Saul , and Nancy Spero , among others, used war equipment, like guns and helicopters, in their works while incorporating important political and war figures, portraying to the nation exactly who was responsible for the violence. Filmmakers such as Lenny Lipton , Jerry Abrams, Peter Gessner, and David Ringo created documentary-style movies featuring actual footage from the antiwar marches to raise awareness about the war and the diverse opposition movement.
Playwrights like Frank O'Hara , Sam Shepard , Robert Lowell , Megan Terry , Grant Duay, and Kenneth Bernard used theater as a vehicle for portraying their thoughts about the Vietnam War, often satirizing the role of America in the world and juxtaposing the horrific effects of war with normal scenes of life. Regardless of medium, antiwar artists ranged from pacifists to violent radicals and caused Americans to think more critically about the war.
Art as war opposition was quite popular in the early years of the war, but soon faded as political activism became the more common and most visible way of opposing the war. Many Asian -Americans were strongly opposed to the Vietnam War. They saw the war as being a bigger action of U. One of the major reasons leading to their significance was that the BAACAW was "highly organized, holding biweekly ninety-minute meetings of the Coordinating Committee at which each regional would submit detailed reports and action plans.
The anti-war sentiment by Asian Americans was fueled by the racial inequality that they faced in the United States. As historian Daryl Maeda notes, "the antiwar movement articulated Asian Americans' racial commonality with Vietnamese people in two distinctly gendered ways: identification based on the experiences of male soldiers and identification by women. They were referred to as gooks and had a racialized identity in comparison to their non-Asian counterparts.
There was also the hypersexualization of Vietnamese women which in turn affected how Asian American women in the military were treated. This in turn led to women's leadership in the Asian American antiwar movement. Patsy Chan, a "Third World" activist, said at an antiwar rally in San Francisco , "We, as Third World women [express] our militant solidarity with our brothers and sisters from Indochina. We, as Third World people know of the struggle the Indochinese are waging against imperialism, because we share that common enemy in the United States.
Both Boggs and Kochiyama were inspired by the civil rights movement of the s and "a growing number of Asian Americans began to push forward a new era in radical Asian American politics. Much Asian-Americans spoke against the war because of the way that the Vietnamese were referred within the U. There were also Asian American musicians who traveled around the United States to oppose the imperialist actions of the American government, specifically their involvement in Vietnam.
Through this play, "Escueta establishes equivalencies between his protagonist, a Filipino American soldier named Andy, and the Vietnamese people. Steve Louie remembers that while the white antiwar movement had 'this moral thing about no killing,' Asian Americans sought to bring attention to 'a bigger issue The clergy, often a forgotten group during the opposition to the Vietnam War, played a large role as well.
The clergy covered any of the religious leaders and members including individuals such as Martin Luther King Jr. In his speech "Beyond Vietnam" King stated, "the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today: my own government. For the sake of those boys, for the sake of this government, for the sake of the hundreds of thousands trembling under our violence, I cannot be silent. The involvement of the clergy did not stop at King though. The analysis entitled "Social Movement Participation: Clergy and the Anti-Vietnam War Movement" expands upon the anti-war movement by taking King, a single religious figurehead, and explaining the movement from the entire clergy's perspective.
The clergy were often forgotten though throughout this opposition. The analysis refers to that fact by saying, "The research concerning clergy anti-war participation is even more barren than the literature on student activism. Based on the results found, they most certainly did not believe in the war and wished to help end it. In basic summary, each specific clergy from each religion had their own view of the war and how they dealt with it, but as a whole, the clergy was completely against the war.
The first draft lottery since World War II in the United States was held on December 1, and was met with large protests and a great deal of controversy; statistical analysis indicated that the methodology of the lotteries unintentionally disadvantaged men with late year birthdays. Over 30, people left the country and went to Canada, Sweden, and Mexico to avoid the draft. To gain an exemption or deferment, many men attended college, though they had to remain in college until their 26th birthday to be certain of avoiding the draft. Some men were rejected by the military as 4-F unfit for service failing to meet physical, mental, or moral standards. All of these issues raised concerns about the fairness of who got selected for involuntary service, since it was often the poor or those without connections who were drafted.
Ironically, in light of modern political issues, a certain exemption was a convincing claim of homosexuality , but very few men attempted this because of the stigma involved. Also, conviction for certain crimes earned an exclusion, the topic of the anti-war song " Alice's Restaurant " by Arlo Guthrie. Even many of those who never received a deferment or exemption never served, simply because the pool of eligible men was so huge compared to the number required for service, that the draft boards never got around to drafting them when a new crop of men became available until or because they had high lottery numbers and later. Of those soldiers who served during the war, there was increasing opposition to the conflict amongst GIs,  which resulted in fragging and many other activities which hampered the US's ability to wage war effectively.
Most of those subjected to the draft were too young to vote or drink in most states, and the image of young people being forced to risk their lives in the military without the privileges of enfranchisement or the ability to drink alcohol legally also successfully pressured legislators to lower the voting age nationally and the drinking age in many states.
Student opposition groups on many college and university campuses seized campus administration offices, and in several instances forced the expulsion of ROTC programs from the campus. Some Americans who were not subject to the draft protested the conscription of their tax dollars for the war effort. War tax resistance , once mostly isolated to solitary anarchists like Henry David Thoreau and religious pacifists like the Quakers , became a more mainstream protest tactic. As of , an estimated ,—, people were refusing to pay the excise taxes on their telephone bills, and another 20, were resisting part or all of their income tax bills.
Among the tax resisters were Joan Baez and Noam Chomsky. Momentum from the protest organizations and the war's impact on the environment became focal point of issues to an overwhelmingly main force for the growth of an environmental movement in the United States. Protest to American participation in the Vietnam War was a movement that many popular musicians shared in, which was a stark contrast to the pro-war compositions of artists during World War II.
While composers created pieces affronting the war, they were not limited to their music. Often protesters were being arrested and participating in peace marches and popular musicians were among their ranks. As the war continued, and with the new media coverage, the movement snowballed and popular music reflected this. As early as the summer of , music-based protest against the American involvement in Southeast Asia began with works like P.
Sloan 's folk rock song Eve of Destruction , recorded by Barry McGuire as one of the earliest musical protests against the Vietnam War. A key figure on the rock end of the antiwar spectrum was Jimi Hendrix — Hendrix had a huge following among the youth culture exploring itself through drugs and experiencing itself through rock music. He was not an official protester of the war; one of Hendrix's biographers contends that Hendrix, being a former soldier, sympathized with the anticommunist view.
With the song " Machine Gun ", dedicated to those fighting in Vietnam, this protest of violence is manifest. Songs such as "Star Spangled Banner" showed individuals that "you can love your country, but hate the government. Although this song was not on music charts probably because it was too radical, it was performed at many public events including the famous Woodstock music festival It was said that "the happy beat and insouciance of the vocalist are in odd juxtaposition to the lyrics that reinforce the sad fact that the American public was being forced into realizing that Vietnam was no longer a remote place on the other side of the world, and the damage it was doing to the country could no longer be considered collateral, involving someone else.
Along with singer-songwriter Phil Ochs , who attended and organized anti-war events and wrote such songs as "I Ain't Marching Anymore" and "The War Is Over", another key historical figure of the antiwar movement was Bob Dylan. Folk and Rock were critical aspects of counterculture during the Vietnam War  both were genres that Dylan would dabble in. His success in writing protest songs came from his pre-existing popularity, as he did not initially intend on doing so.
We followed his career as if he were singing our songs. To complement "Blowin' in the Wind" Dylan's song " The Times they are A-Changin' " alludes to a new method of governing that is necessary and warns those who currently participate in government that the change is imminent. Dylan tells the "senators and congressmen [to] please heed the call. John Lennon , former member of the Beatles, did most of his activism in his solo career with wife Yoko Ono. Given his immense fame due to the success of the Beatles, he was a very prominent movement figure with the constant media and press attention. Still being proactive on their honeymoon, the newlyweds controversially held a sit-in, where they sat in bed for a week answering press questions. They held numerous sit-ins, one where they first introduced their song "Give Peace a Chance".
Lennon and Ono's song overshadowed many previous held anthems, as it became known as the ultimate anthem of peace in the s, with their words "all we are saying Within the United States military various servicemembers would organize to avoid military duties and individual actors would also carry out their own acts of resistance. The movement consisted of the self-organizing of active duty members and veterans in collaboration with civilian peace activists.
By the United States military would become so demoralized that the military would have severe difficulties properly waging war. There was a great deal of civic unrest on college campuses throughout the s as students became increasingly involved in the Civil Rights Movement , Second Wave Feminism , and anti-war movement. Doug McAdam explains the success of the mass mobilization of volunteers for Freedom Summer in terms of "Biographical Availability", where individuals must have a certain degree of social, economic, and psychological freedom to be able to participate in large scale social movements.
David Meyers also explains how the concept of personal efficacy affects mass movement mobilization. At this time, America was a superpower and enjoyed great affluence after thirty years of depression, war, and sacrifice. Benjamin T. Harrison argues that the post World War II affluence set the stage for the protest generation in the s. The Anti-war movement became part of a larger protest movement against the traditional American Values and attitudes. Meyers builds off this claim in his argument that the "relatively privileged enjoy the education and affirmation that afford them the belief that they might make a difference. In one instance, John William Ward , then president of Amherst College , sat down in front of Westover Air Force Base near Chicopee, Massachusetts, along with students, some faculty, and his wife Barbara to protest against Richard Nixon's escalation of offensive bombing in Southeast Asia.
College enrollment reached 9 million by the end of the s. Colleges and universities in America had more students than ever before, and these institutions often tried to restrict student behavior to maintain order on the campuses. To combat this, many college students became active in causes that promoted free speech, student input in the curriculum, and an end to archaic social restrictions.
Students joined the antiwar movement because they did not want to fight in a foreign civil war that they believed did not concern them or because they were morally opposed to all war. Others disliked the war because it diverted funds and attention away from problems in the U. Intellectual growth and gaining a liberal perspective at college caused many students to become active in the antiwar movement. Another attractive feature of the opposition movement was the fact that it was a popular social event. Most student antiwar organizations were locally or campus-based, including chapters of the very loosely co-ordinated Students for a Democratic Society , because they were easier to organize and participate in than national groups.
Common antiwar demonstrations for college students featured attempts to sever ties between the war machine and universities through burning draft cards , protesting universities furnishing grades to draft boards, and protesting military and Dow Chemical job fairs on campus. Protests grew after the Kent State shootings , radicalizing more and more students. By the early s, most student protest movements died down due to President Nixon's de-escalation of the war, the economic downturn, and disillusionment with the powerlessness of the antiwar movement. Women were a large part of the antiwar movement, even though they were sometimes relegated to second-class status within the organizations or faced sexism within opposition groups.
Female soldiers serving in Vietnam joined the movement to battle the war and sexism, racism, and the established military bureaucracy by writing articles for antiwar and antimilitary newspapers. Mothers and older generations of women joined the opposition movement, as advocates for peace and people opposed to the effects of the war and the draft on the generation of young men. These women saw the draft as one of the most disliked parts of the war machine and sought to undermine the war itself through undermining the draft.
Another Mother for Peace and WSP often held free draft counseling centers to give young men legal and illegal methods to oppose the draft. The government often saw middle-aged women involved in such organizations as the most dangerous members of the opposition movement because they were ordinary citizens who quickly and efficiently mobilized. Many women in America sympathized with the Vietnamese civilians affected by the war and joined the opposition movement. They protested the use of napalm, a highly flammable jelly weapon created by the Dow Chemical Company and used as a weapon during the war, by boycotting Saran Wrap, another product made by the company. Faced with the sexism sometimes found in the antiwar movement, New Left, and Civil Rights Movement, some women created their own organizations to establish true equality of the sexes.
Some of frustrations of younger women became apparent during the antiwar movement: they desired more radical change and decreased acceptance of societal gender roles than older women activists. In October the Senate Foreign Relations Committee held hearings on resolutions urging President Johnson to request an emergency session of the United Nations security council to consider proposals for ending the war. In January , just weeks into his first term, Congressman Ron Dellums set up a Vietnam war crimes exhibit in an annex to his Congressional office. The exhibit featured four large posters depicting atrocities committed by American soldiers embellished with red paint. This was followed shortly thereafter by four days of hearings on " war crimes " in Vietnam, which began April Dellums, assisted by the Citizens Commission of Inquiry ,  had called for formal investigations into the allegations, but Congress chose not to endorse these proceedings.
As such, the hearings were ad hoc and only informational in nature. As a condition of room use, press and camera presence were not permitted, but the proceedings were transcribed. Mikva Dem-IL. The transcripts describe alleged details of U. Some tactics were described as "gruesome", such as the severing of ears from corpses to verify body count. Others involved the killing of civilians. Soldiers claimed to have ordered artillery strikes on villages which did not appear to have any military presence. Soldiers were claimed to use racist terms such as "gooks", "dinks" and "slant eyes" when referring to the Vietnamese. Witnesses described that legal, by-the-book instruction was augmented by more questionable training by non-commissioned officers as to how soldiers should conduct themselves.
One witness testified about " free-fire zones ", areas as large as 80 square miles km 2 in which soldiers were free to shoot any Vietnamese they encountered after curfew without first making sure they were hostile. Allegations of exaggeration of body count, torture, murder and general abuse of civilians and the psychology and motivations of soldiers and officers were discussed at length. William Fulbright , held a series of 22 hearings referred to as the Fulbright Hearings on proposals relating to ending the war. On the third day of the hearings, April 22, , future Senator and presidential candidate John Kerry became the first Vietnam veteran to testify before Congress in opposition to the war. Speaking on behalf of Vietnam Veterans Against the War , he argued for the immediate, unilateral withdrawal of U.
During nearly two hours of discussions with committee members, Kerry related in some detail the findings of the Winter Soldier Investigation , in which veterans had described personally committing or witnessing atrocities and war crimes. The American public's support of the Vietnam War decreased as the war continued on. As public support decreased, opposition grew. The Gallup News Service began asking the American public whether it was a "mistake to send troops to Vietnam" in August A Gallup Poll asked the question, "Have you ever felt the urge to organize or join a public demonstration about something? However, when the American Public was asked in , "Looking back, do you wish that you had made a stronger effort to protest or demonstrate against the Vietnam War, or not", 25 percent said they wished they had.
A major factor in the American public's disapproval of the Vietnam War came from the casualties being inflicted on US forces. As the war continued, the public became much more opposed to the war, seeing that it was not ending. The opposition to the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War had many effects, which arguably led to the eventual end of the involvement of the United States. Howard Zinn , a controversial historian, states in his book A People's History of the United States that, "in the course of the war, there developed in the United States the greatest antiwar movement the nation had ever experienced, a movement that played a critical role in bringing the war to an end.
An alternative point of view is expressed by Michael Lind. Citing public polling data on protests during the war he claimed that: "The American public turned against the Vietnam War not because it was persuaded by the radical and liberal left that it was unjust, but out of sensitivity to its rising costs. The first effect the opposition had that led to the end of the war was that fewer soldiers were available for the army.By the end of the war, some 30, Short Story: The Volupides Murder citizens Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay volunteered their service, Allusions To Characterize Grenouille In Perfume nearly of them had been killed in action. The resulting blow to the Johnson campaign, taken together with other factors, led the President to make a Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay announcement in a March 31 televised speech that he was pulling Eat my diction of the race. Already frightened by the false rumors that had spread through the Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay, the ARVN soldiers fled, tossing aside their weapons. Still being proactive on their honeymoon, the newlyweds controversially held a sit-in, where they sat in bed for a week answering press questions. The prevalence of soul dancing in Japan in the earlier years also formed the Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay for the Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay acceptance Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay Tell Tale Heart Point Of View Analysis hip-hop culture into the Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay culture because soul dancing was common in the streets […]. Of those Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay Truffle Fairy Research Paper served during the war, there was increasing opposition to the conflict amongst GIs,  which resulted in fragging and many other Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay which hampered the US's Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay to wage Media Role In The Vietnam War Essay effectively.