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Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals

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The Power of Personal Narrative - J. Christian Jensen - TEDxBYU

A major and controversial component of Iorga's political vision, present throughout most of his career, was his antisemitism. Cultural historian William O. Oldson notes that Iorga's "amazing list of accomplishments" in other fields helped give antisemitism "an irresistible panache" in Romania, particularly since Iorga shared in the belief that all good nationalists were antisemites. The PND, coming from the same ideological family as Poland 's Roman Dmowski and the National Democracy movement, [] proclaimed that local Jews were suffocating the Romanian middle class and needed to be expelled, using slogans such as Evreii la Palestina "The Jews to Palestine ".

Iorga's personal conservative outlook, passed into the party doctrines, also implied a claim that the Jews were agents of rebellion against political and cultural authority. Nicolae Iorga and A. Iorga's changing sentiment flowed between the extremes of Francophilia and Francophobia. The Romanian scholar explained in detail his dislike for the Third Republic 's social and political landscape. He recalled that, in the s, he had been shocked by the irreverence and cosmopolitanism of French student society.

Iorga's coverage of European culture and continental affairs also opened bridges with other cultural areas, particularly so during the interwar. By that time, historian Lucian Boia notes, he was seeing Europe as a community of nations, and, "in his own way", was rejecting isolationism or "primitive" xenophobia. Disenchanted with German culture after the shock of World War I, [] Iorga also had strong views on Adolf Hitler , Nazi Germany and Nazism in general, taking in view their contempt for the Versailles system , but also their repressive politics. Borders are attacked, gutted, destroyed, gulped up. There reemerges, in its cruelest form, the old theory that small states have no right to independence, that they fall within living spaces I cannot forget the past and I cannot reach an agreement with Hitler's dictatorship, being a man who cherishes freedom of thought".

His anti-war texts of replied to claims that a new armed conflict would usher in national "vitality", and, during the September Campaign , expressed solidarity with Poland—Iorga's Polonophila was even noted by the Nazis, causing more frictions between Berlin and Bucharest. Nicolae Iorga's bitterness about Romanian geopolitical disadvantages was encoded in his oft-quoted remark about the country only having two peaceful borders: one with Serbia , the other with the Black Sea. Various of Iorga's tracts speak in favor of a common background uniting the diverse nations of the Balkans.

Bulgarian historian Maria Todorova suggests that, unlike many of his predecessors, Iorga was not alarmed Romania being perceived as a Balkan country, and did not attach a negative connotation to this affiliation even though, she notes, Iorga explicitly placed the northern limit of the Balkans on the Danube , just south of Wallachia. The level of Iorga's productivity and the quality of his historical writing were also highlighted by more modern researchers. By , he had changed his approach in historiography to include and illustrate his belief in emotional attachment as a positive value of cultural nationalism.

He would speak of historians as "elders of [their] nation", [] and dismissed academic specialization as a "blindfold". Giurescu , P. Several other historians have expressed criticism of Iorga's bias and agenda. Seton-Watson regarded him as "prolific" and " bahnbrechend ", but mentioned his "slovenly style". Despite Iorga's ambition of fusing research and pedagogy, his students, both rivals and friends, often noted that he was inferior to other colleagues when it came to teaching, in particular in directing advanced classes—reportedly, his popularity dropped with time, the aging Iorga having displayed aggression toward inquisitive students.

Iorga's ideas on the origin of the Romanians , and his explanation for the more mysterious parts of that lengthy ethnogenesis process, were shaped by his both his scientific and ideological preoccupations. Some of Iorga's studies focused specifically on the original events in the process: ancient Dacia 's conquest by the Roman Empire Trajan's Dacian Wars , and the subsequent foundation of Roman Dacia. His account is decidedly in support of Romania's Roman Latin roots, and even suggests that Romanization preceded the actual conquest.

Iorga had a complex personal perspective on the little-documented Dark Age history , between the Roman departure AD and the 14th century emergence of two Danubian Principalities : Moldavia and Wallachia. Despite the separate histories and conflicting allegiances these regions had during the High Middle Ages , he tended to group the two Principalities and medieval Transylvania together, into a vague non-stately entity he named "the Romanian Land". There was therefore no state, but a Romanian mass living in the midst of forests, in those villages harbored by protective forests, where it is just as true that a certain way of life could emerge, sometimes on a rather elevated level.

Echoing his political conservatism, Iorga's theory proposed that the Romanized Dacians, or all their Vlach -Romanian successors, had created peasant republics to defend themselves against the invading nomads. Iorga's peasant polities, sometimes described by him as Romanii populare "people's Romanias", "people's Roman-like polities" , [] [] [] were seen by him as the sources of a supposed uncodified constitution in both Moldavia and Wallachia. That constitutional system, he argued, created solidarity: the countries' hospodar rulers were themselves peasants, elected to high military office by their peers, and protecting the entire community. The stately foundation of Moldavia and of Wallachia , Iorga thought, were linked to the emergence of major trade routes in the 14th century, and not to the political initiative of military elites.

A major point of contention between Panaitescu and Iorga referred to Michael the Brave 's historical achievements: sacrilegious in the eyes of Iorga, Panaitescu placed in doubt Michael's claim to princely descent, and described him as mainly the political agent of boyar interests. Two of Iorga's major fields of expertise were Byzantine studies and Turkology. A significant portion of his contributions in the field detailed the impact of Byzantine influences on the Danubian Principalities and the Balkans at large. He described the "Byzantine man" as embodying the blend of several cultural universes: Greco-Roman , Levantine and Eastern Christian. Iorga's writings insisted on the importance of Byzantine Greek and Levantine influences in the two countries after the fall of Constantinople : his notion of "Byzantium after Byzantium" postulated that the cultural forms produced by the Byzantine Empire had been preserved by the Principalities under Ottoman suzerainty roughly, between the 16th and 18th centuries.

The post-Byzantine thesis was taken by various commentators as further proof that the Romanian historian, unlike many of his contemporaries, accepted a level of multiculturalism or acculturation in defining modern Romanian identity. Semiotician Monica Spiridon writes: "Iorga highly valued the idea of cultural confluence and hybridity. It is a good descriptive term, particularly for representing the commonalities of the Orthodox peoples in the Ottoman Empire Iorga's tolerance for the national bias in historiography and his own political profile were complemented in the field of literature and the arts by his strong belief in didacticism. Art's mission was, in his view, to educate and empower the Romanian peasant.

Do not imitate Write about things from your country and about the Romanian soul therein. After his own Marxist beginnings, Iorga was also a critic of Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea 's socialist and Poporanist school, and treated its literature with noted disdain. Iorga's direct influence as a critic had largely faded by the s, owing in part to his decision of concentrating his energy elsewhere. In some of his essays, Iorga identified Expressionism with the danger of Germanization , a phenomenon he described as "intolerable" although, unwittingly, he was also among the first Romanians to tackle Expressionism.

The ensuing polemics were often bitter, and Iorga's vehemence was met with ridicule by his modernist adversaries. A lengthy polemic consumed Iorga's relationship with Lovinescu, having at its core the irreconcilable differences between their visions of cultural history. Other authors back Lovinescu's verdict about the historian's lack of critical intuition and prowess. Stoika and Sandu Teleajen. His views on the bridging of tradition with modernism quoted profusely from Iorga's arguments against cultural imitation, but parted with Iorga's various other beliefs.

According to some of his contemporaries, Nicolae Iorga was an outstandingly talented public speaker. One voice in support of this view is that of Ion Petrovici , a Junimist academic, who recounted that hearing Iorga lecture had made him overcome a prejudice which rated Maiorescu above all Romanian orators. The oratorical technique flowed into Iorga's contribution to belles-lettres. A special target for his interest was English literature, which he believed had a "fundamental bond" with Romanian lore, as traditions equally "steeped in mystery. In old age, Iorga had also established his reputation as a memoirist: Orizonturile mele was described by Victor Iova as "a masterpiece of Romanian literature".

Frimu , part of Oameni cari au fost , was so sympathetic that the authorities had to censor it. Aside from being himself a writer, Iorga's public image was also preserved in the literary work of both his colleagues and adversaries. One early example is a biting epigram by Ion Luca Caragiale , where Iorga is described as the dazed savant. Iorga became the subject of numerous visual portrayals. Iorga's murder, like other acts of violence ordered by the Iron Guard, alarmed Ion Antonescu , who found that it contradicted his resolutions on public order—the first clash in a dispute which, early in , erupted as the Legionary Rebellion and saw the Guard's ouster from power. Sima stated that he did not regret the act, noting that Iorga the scholar had had a long enough career, [] and arguing, counterfactually, that the revenge was saluted by most Romanians.

Romania's communist regime , set up in the late s, originally revised Iorga's role in the historical narrative: a record works of his were banned by communist censors , and remained banned until Iorga was promoted to the national communist pantheon as an " anti-fascist " and " progressive " intellectual, and references to his lifelong anti-communism were omitted. On the 40th anniversary of his death, the Munich-based Romanian section of the anti-communist Radio Free Europe RFE broadcast an homage piece with renewed condemnation of Iorga's killers. RFE received death threats from obscure Iron Guard diaspora members, probably agents of the Securitate secret police. Iorga has enjoyed posthumous popularity in the decades since the Romanian Revolution of : present at the top of "most important Romanians" polls in the s, [] he was voted in at No.

Nicolae Iorga had over ten children from his marriages, but many of them died in infancy. Iorga, was a writer active with the Cuget Clar movement, [] [] and later a noted physician. Iorga's niece Micaella Filitti, who worked as a civil servant in the s, defected from Communist Romania and settled in France. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Romanian historian, politician, literary critic and poet. Serving with A. Cuza until 26 April Maria Tasu. Ecaterina Bogdan. Iorga, E. Lovinescu, G. Zamfirescu, B. See also Vianu, Vol. See also Setton, p.

Iorga" , in Dilema Veche , Nr. III, pp. See also Boia , p. Apologia istoriei recente" , in Observator Cultural , Nr. See also Boia, , p. II, p. Seton-Watson, pp. See also Butaru, pp. Ornea , "Din memorialistica lui N. See also Guida, p. Seton-Watson, p. See also Ciprian, p. See also Iova, p. According to Crampton p. Ornea , "N. See also Ornea , p. See also Veiga, pp. See also Radu, p. See also Neubauer, p. Alles ed. See also Butaru, p. See also Ornea , pp. See also Czobor-Lupp, pp. See also Livezeanu, pp.

Je t'aime, je t'aime drew upon the traditions of science-fiction [33] for a story of a man sent back into his past, a theme which enabled Resnais again to present a narrative of fragmented time. Alain Resnais's scriptwriter on this film was the author Jacques Sternberg. The film was unlucky in its release its planned screening at Cannes was cancelled amid the political events of May , and it was almost five years before Resnais was able to direct another film.

Throughout the s, Resnais was attached to direct an international production called Les Aventures de Harry Dickson , based on the stories by Jean Ray , with Anatole Dauman as producer. Resnais and Dauman worked towards the project for a decade before finally giving up. Resnais spent some time in America working on various unfulfilled projects, including one about the Marquis de Sade. After contributing an episode to L'An 01 The Year 01 , a collective film organised by Jacques Doillon , Resnais made a second collaboration with Jorge Semprun for Stavisky , based on the life of the notorious financier and embezzler whose death in provoked a political scandal. With glamorous costumes and sets, a musical score by Stephen Sondheim , and Jean-Paul Belmondo in the title role, it was seen as Resnais's most commercial film to date, but its complex narrative structure showed clear links with the formal preoccupations of his earlier films.

The story shows an ageing, maybe dying, novelist grappling with alternative versions of his own past as he adapts them for his fiction. Resnais was eager that the dark subject should remain humorous, and he described it as "a macabre divertissement". From the s onwards Resnais showed a particular interest in integrating material from other forms of popular culture into his films, drawing especially on music and the theatre. The first four of these were among the large cast of La vie est un roman Life Is a Bed of Roses , , a comic fantasy about utopian dreams in which three stories, from different eras and told in different styles, are interwoven within a shared setting.

The action is punctuated by episodes of song which develop towards the end into scenes that are almost operatic; Resnais said that his starting point had been the desire to make a film in which dialogue and song would alternate. He made Gershwin , an innovative TV documentary in which the American composer's life and works were reviewed through the testimonies of performers and filmmakers, juxtaposed with commissioned paintings by Guy Peellaert.

Resnais remained entirely faithful to the play apart from shortening it and he emphasised its theatricality by filming in long takes on large sets of evidently artificial design, as well as by marking off the acts of the play with the fall of a curtain. Resnais, having admired the plays of Alan Ayckbourn for many years, chose to adapt what appeared the most intractable of them, Intimate Exchanges , a series of eight interlinked plays which follow the consequences of a casual choice to sixteen possible endings. Resnais slightly reduced the number of permuted endings and compressed the plays into two films, each having a common starting point, and to be seen in any order.

Speaking in , Resnais said that he did not make a separation between cinema and theatre and refused to make enemies of them. He explained however that what initially attracted him to the book was the quality of its dialogue, which he retained largely unchanged for the film. When Les Herbes folles was shown at the Cannes Film Festival, it was the occasion for a special jury award to Resnais "for his work and exceptional contribution to the history of cinema". In his final two films, Resnais again drew his source material from the theatre. Three weeks before Resnais's death, the film received its premiere in the competition section of the 64th Berlin International Film Festival in February , where it won a Silver Bear award "for a feature film that opens new perspectives".

Resnais was often linked with the group of French filmmakers who made their breakthrough as the New Wave or nouvelle vague in the late s, but by then he had already established a significant reputation through his ten years of work on documentary short films. He defined his own relationship by saying: "Although I was not fully part of the New Wave because of my age, there was some mutual sympathy and respect between myself and Rivette, Bazin, Demy, Truffaut So I felt friendly with that team. The importance of creative collaboration in Resnais's films has been noted by many commentators.

Time and memory have regularly been identified as two of the principal themes of Resnais's work, at least in his earlier films. What interests me in the mind is that faculty we have to imagine what is going to happen in our heads, or to remember what has happened". Another view of the evolution of Resnais's career saw him moving progressively away from a realistic treatment of 'big' subjects and overtly political themes towards films that are increasingly personal and playful.

Experimentation with narrative forms and genre conventions instead became a central focus of his films. A frequent criticism of Resnais's films among English-language commentators has been that they are emotionally cold; that they are all about technique without grasp of character or subject, [73] that his understanding of beauty is compromised by a lack of sensuousness, [74] and that his seriousness of intent fails to communicate itself to audiences. There is general agreement about Resnais's attachment to formalism in his approach to film; he himself regarded it as the starting point of his work, and usually had an idea of a form, or method of construction, in his head even before the plot or the characters took shape.

If there is no form, you cannot create emotion in the spectator. On his religious views, he called himself a "mystical atheist ". Resnais died in Paris on 1 March ; he was buried in Montparnasse cemetery. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. French film director. Juliette Binoche and Alain Resnais, Vannes , France. London: Macmillan, London: Faber, London: Verso, Paris: Larousse, Bush, plays the measured and reflective elder statesman. He writes that immigration evokes fear and division, and presidents can either stoke these sentiments or soothe them: Bush, in retirement, takes the latter approach with his paintings, casting himself as an advocate for immigration reform by celebrating American diversity.

The book, providing an honorific framing, bestows a dignity upon his subjects that his presidential policies did not. Bush Institute for Global Leadership, recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, or the Mexican nanny named Paula Rendon who was lovingly present in so many of his childhood memories. Naturally, the very first painting is of Lady Liberty, immigrant par excellence, and the only nonhuman depicted.

She was—and, symbolically, still is—the very first American to welcome them onto American soil and into the American mythos. This sort of juxtaposition—exceptional overcoming meets averageness and anonymity—attempts to fuel a rapidly dwindling belief in the American Dream. It is an attitude exemplified in the motto that appears on the Great Seal of the United States, which Bush borrows in translation for his title: E pluribus unum.

Her gaze is direct, and the downturned corners of her mouth suspend her expression in her signature smirk-like smile. The high collar of her blazer is equal parts feminine elegance and masculine seriousness, befitting the first female secretary of state, who herself arrived at Ellis Island as a refugee from Czechoslovakia in Another secretary of state, Henry Kissinger, follows Albright. His face is alert and curious, the portrait presenting a facade of youthfulness that long ago abandoned the nonagenarian.

Bush describes how Kissinger was naturalized during basic military training in The oil paintings are, one must admit, pleasant. They are imbued with a bright aura, as though they have been blessed by an angel named America and the gift of their naturalized citizenship has literally haloed them with light.

The US withdrew its military Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals the country at the end of last month Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals helping to evacuate more thanpeople from the country, largely Afghan civilians. There's also the issue of Standing Alone Analysis Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals that the United States Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals behind. Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals the surface, Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals follows Clarissa Dalloway, an Englishwoman in her fifties, minute by minute through the Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals day Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals which she is having a party. Hannah said unexplained encounters continued over the next 30 Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals, with a new Pros And Cons Of The Outsiders refusing to return after witnessing a woman walk through a wall. The level of Iorga's productivity and Comparing Love In Symposium, Phaedrus, Agathon And Socrates quality Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals his historical writing were also highlighted Personal Narrative: Childhood Arrivals more modern researchers.

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