➊ Summary Of Franklin Crabbes Things Fall Apart

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Summary Of Franklin Crabbes Things Fall Apart



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Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe - Themes

Between and the crown granted to certain cities and boroughs the privilege of being counties of themselves. All these boroughs, with the exception of Carmarthen, Lichfield, Poole and Haverfordwest, which remain counties of themselves, and forty-seven others, were created county boroughs by the Local Government Act , and are entirely dissociated from the control of a county council. The City of London is also a county of itself, whose two sheriffs are also sheriffs of Middlesex, while for the purposes of the act of the house-covered district which extends for many miles round the City constitutes a county. The county has always been the unit for the organization of the militia, and from about certain regiments of the regular army were associated with particular counties by territorial titles.

The army scheme of provided for the formation of county associations under the presidency of the lords-lieutenant for the organization of the new territorial army. See Statutes of the Realm ; W. Stubbs, Constitutional History of England ; F. Pollock and F. Maitland, History of English Law ; H. The county court, it has been said, is at once the most ancient and the most modern of English civil tribunals.

The Saxon Curia Comitatus, maintained after the Norman Conquest, was a local court and a small debts court. It was instituted by Alfred the Great, its jurisdiction embracing civil, and, until the reign of William I. The officers of the court consisted of the earldorman, the bishop and the sheriff. The court was held once in every four weeks, being presided over by the earl, or, in his absence, the sheriff. The suitors of the court, i. The court was not one of record. The appointment of judges of assize in the reign of Henry II. These, in turn, proved unsatisfactory, owing both to the limited nature of their jurisdiction restricted to causes of debt not exceeding 40s.

Accordingly, with the view of making justice cheaper and more accessible the County Courts Act was passed. Thirteen amending acts were passed, by which new jurisdiction was from time to time conferred on the county courts, and in the year an act was passed repealing the previous acts and consolidating their provisions, with some amendment. This is now the code or charter of the county courts.

The grain of mustard-seed sown in has grown into a goodly tree, with branches extending over the whole of England and Wales; and they embrace within their ambit a more multifarious jurisdiction than is possessed by any other courts in the kingdom. England and Wales were mapped out into 59 circuits not including the city of London , with power for the crown, by order in council, to abolish any circuit and rearrange the areas comprised in the circuits sec.

There is one judge to each circuit, but the lord chancellor is empowered to appoint two judges in a circuit, provided that the total number of judges does not exceed Every circuit except in Birmingham, Clerkenwell, and Westminster is divided into districts, in each of which there is a court, with a registrar and bailiffs. The judges are directed to attend and hold a court in each district at least once in every month, unless the lord chancellor shall otherwise direct secs. But in practice the judge sits several times a month in the large centres of population, and less frequently than once a month in the court town of sparsely inhabited districts.

By sec. There is no discoverable principle upon which these limits of the jurisdiction of the county courts have been determined. But the above table is not by any means an exhaustive statement of the jurisdiction of the county courts. For many years it has been the practice of parliament to throw on the county court judges the duty of acting as judges or arbitrators for the purpose of new legislation relating to social subjects. It is impossible to classify the many statutes which have been passed since and which confer some jurisdiction, apart from that under the County Courts Act, on county courts or their judges.

Some of these acts impose exceptional duties on the judges of the county courts, others confer unlimited jurisdiction concurrently with the High Court or some other court, others, again, confer limited or, sometimes, exclusive jurisdiction. A list of all the acts will be found in the Annual County Courts Practice. The number of jurymen impanelled and sworn at the trial was, by the County Courts Act , increased from five to eight. There is an appeal from the county courts on matters of law to a divisional court of the High Court, i. The determination of the divisional court is final, unless leave be given by that court or the court of appeal Judicature Acts See further Appeal.

Snagge, in Nineteenth Century , October The New English Dict. In rhymed verse two lines which complete a meaning in themselves are particularly known as a couplet. In much of old English dramatic literature, when the mass of the composition is in blank verse or even in prose, particular emphasis is given by closing the scene in a couplet. In French literature, the term couplet is not confined to a pair of lines, but is commonly used for a stanza. In this sense it is employed to distinguish the more emphatic parts of a species of verse which is essentially gay, graceful and frivolous, such as the songs in a vaudeville or a comic opera. In the 18th century, Le Sage, Piron and even Voltaire did not hesitate to engage their talents on the production of couplets, which were often witty, if they had no other merit, and were well fitted to catch the popular ear.

This signification of the word couplet is not unknown in England, but it is not customary; it is probably used in a stricter and a more technical sense to describe a pair of rhymed lines, whether serious or merry. The normal type, as it may almost be called, of English versification is the metre of ten-syllabled rhymed lines designated as heroic couplet. This form of iambic verse, with five beats to each line, is believed to have been invented by Chaucer, who employs it first in the Prologue The Legend of Good Women the composition of which is attributed to the year That poem opens with the couplet:—.

This is an absolutely correct example of the heroic couplet, which ultimately reached such majesty in the hands of Dryden and such brilliancy in those of Pope. It has been considered proper for didactic, descriptive and satirical poetry, although in the course of the 19th century blank verse largely took its place. The word coupon a piece cut off possesses an etymological meaning so comprehensive that, while on the Stock Exchange it is only used to denote such an interest certificate or a certificate of stock of a joint-stock company, it may be as suitably, and elsewhere is perhaps more frequently, applied to tickets sold by tourist agencies and others.

The coupons by means of which the interest on a bond or debenture is collected are generally printed at the side or foot of that document, to be cut off and presented for payment at the bank or agency named on them as they become due. They pass by delivery, and are as a rule exempt from stamp duty. Coupons for the payment of dividends are also attached to the share warrants to bearer issued by some joint-stock companies. The coupons on the bonds of most of the principal foreign loans are payable in London in sterling as well as abroad. It is also a musical term for a movement or independent piece based on the dance. In a suite it followed the Allemande q. Williams, London, ; reprinted Oxford, , with memoir of the author , an attempt to prove that there has been no break in the line of ordination from the apostles to the English clergy.

He died in London on the 17th of October , and was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. In his will, dated two years before his death, he declared himself still a member of the Roman Catholic Church, although dissenting from many of its opinions. He went to Paris in , and worked at the studio of Steuben and Hesse; but his independent spirit did not allow him to remain there long, as he preferred to work out his own way by the study of Spanish, Flemish and French painters. When Courbet had made a name as an artist he grew ambitious of other glory; he tried to promote democratic and social science, and under the Empire he wrote essays and dissertations.

To escape the necessity of working to the end of his days at the orders of the State in order to pay this sum, Courbet went to Switzerland in , and died at La Tour du Peilz, on the 31st of December , of a disease of the liver aggravated by intemperance. Lemonnier, Les Peintres de la Vie Paris, Seneuil was an additional name adopted from his native place. Devoting himself at first to the study of the law, he was called to the French bar in Soon after, however, he returned to Dordogne and settled down as a manager of ironworks. He found leisure to study economic and political questions, and was a frequent contributor to the republican papers.

On the establishment of the second republic in he became director of the public domains. He died at Paris on the 29th of June Courcelle-Seneuil, as an economist, was strongly inclined towards the liberal school, and was equally partial to the historical and experimental methods; but his best energies were directed to applied economy and social questions. After the accession of Richard I. De Lacy quickly made his peace with Richard, while de Courci defied him; and the subsequent history of the latter consisted mainly in the vicissitudes of a lasting feud with the de Lacys. In Hugh de Lacy utterly defeated de Courci in battle, and took him prisoner. He again appeared in arms on hearing that Hugh de Lacy had obtained a grant of Ulster with the title of earl; and in alliance with the king of Man he ravaged the territory of Down; but was completely routed by Walter de Lacy, and disappeared from the scene till , when he obtained permission to return to England.

In he was in favour with King John, from whom he received a pension, and whom he accompanied to Ireland. There is some indication of his having sided with John in his struggle with the barons; but of the later history of de Courci little is known. He probably died in the summer of Both de Courci and his wife Affreca were benefactors of the church, and founded several abbeys and priories in Ulster.

John de Courci left no legitimate children. London, , to which is added a bibliography of the original and later authorities for the life of de Courci. He served in various campaigns of the Revolutionary wars, especially in those of Italy in and , and in the German campaign of Courier had given up his commission in the autumn of , but the general enthusiasm in Paris over the preparations for the new campaign affected him, and he attached himself to the staff of a general of artillery. But he was horror-struck by the carnage at Wagram , refusing from that time to believe that there was any art in war. He hastily quitted Vienna, escaping the formal charge of desertion because his new appointment had not been confirmed.

The savage independence of his nature rendered subordination intolerable to him; he had been three times disgraced for absenting himself without leave, and his superiors resented his satirical humour. In consequence of a misadventure—blotting the manuscript—he was involved in a quarrel with the librarian, and was compelled by the government to leave Tuscany. After the second restoration of the Bourbons the career of Courier as political pamphleteer began. He had before this time waged war against local wrongs in his own district, and had been the adviser and helpful friend of his neighbours.

He now made himself by his letters and pamphlets one of the most dreaded opponents of the government of the Restoration. He advocated a liberal monarchy, at the head of which he doubtless wished to see Louis Philippe. For this he was tried and condemned to suffer a short imprisonment and to pay a fine. Before he went to prison he published a compte rendu of his trial, which had a still larger circulation than the Discours itself. In appeared the Livret de Paul Louis , the Gazette de village , followed in by his famous Pamphlet des pamphlets , called by his biographer, Armand Carrel, his swan-song. He also projected a translation of Herodotus, and published a specimen, in which he attempted to imitate archaic French; but he did not live to carry out this plan.

In the autumn of , on a Sunday afternoon August 18th , Courier was found shot in a wood near his house. The murderers, who were servants of his own, remained undiscovered for five years. The writings of Courier, dealing with the facts and events of his own time, are valuable sources of information as to the condition of France before, during, and after the Revolution. Courier appeared in Sarcey ; also three notices by Sainte-Beuve in the Causeries du lundi and the Nouveaux Lundis. It is bounded on the N. The area is 10, sq. The surface is generally low and undulating, and the coast-lands flat and marshy.

The interior is characterized by wooded dunes, covered with pine, fir, birch and oak, with swamps and lakes, and fertile patches between. The surface nowhere rises more than ft. The Mitau plain divides it into two parts, of which the western is fertile and thickly inhabited, except in the north, while the eastern is less fertile and thinly inhabited. One-third of the area is still forest. Courland is drained by nearly one hundred rivers, of which only three, the Dvina, the Aa and the Windau, are navigable.

They all flow north-westwards and discharge into the Baltic Sea. Owing to the numerous lakes and marshes, the climate is damp and often foggy, as well as changeable, and the winter is severe. Agriculture is the chief occupation, the principal crops being rye, barley, oats, wheat, flax and potatoes. The land is mostly owned by nobles of German descent. In laws were issued to enable the Letts, who form the bulk of the population, to acquire the farms which they held, and special banks were founded to help them. By this means some 12, farms were bought by their occupants; but the great mass of the population are still landless, and live as hired labourers, occupying a low position in the social scale.

On the large estates agriculture is conducted with skill and scientific knowledge. Fruit grows well. Excellent breeds of cattle, sheep and pigs are kept. Libau and Mitau are the principal industrial centres, with iron-works, agricultural machinery works, tanneries, glass and soap works. Flax spinning is mostly a domestic industry. Iron and limestone are the chief minerals; a little amber is found on the coast.

The population was , in ; , in , of whom , were women; , estimate in The chief towns of the ten districts are Mitau Doblenskiy district , capital of the government pop. Anciently Courland was inhabited by the Cours or Kurs, a Lettish tribe, who were subdued and converted to Christianity by the Brethren of the Sword, a German military order, in the first quarter of the 13th century. In it passed under the rule of the Teutonic Knights owing to the amalgamation of this order with that of the Brethren of the Sword. At that time it comprised the two duchies of Courland and Semgallen. Under the increasing pressure of Russia Muscovy the Teutonic Knights in found it expedient to put themselves under the suzerainty of Poland, the grandmaster Gotthard Kettler d.

The duchy suffered severely in the Russo-Swedish wars of The celebrated Marshal Saxe was elected duke in , but only managed to maintain himself by force of arms till the next year. The last Kettler, William, titular duke of Courland, died in , and the empress Anne now bestowed the dignity on her favourite Biren, who held it from to and again from till his death in During nearly the whole of the 18th century Courland, devastated by continual wars, was a shuttlecock between Russia and Poland; until eventually in the assembly of the nobles placed it under the Russian sceptre.

The Baltic provinces—Esthonia, Livonia and Courland—ceased to form collectively one general government in See H. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Esth-, und Kurlands 2 vols. Trained for the scholastic profession, he was appointed assistant professor at the Academy of Paris in , professor of mathematics at Lyons in , rector of the Academy of Grenoble in , inspector-general of studies in , rector of the Academy of Dijon and honorary inspector-general in , retiring in He died in Paris on the 31st of March Cournot was the first who, with a competent knowledge of both subjects, endeavoured to apply mathematics to the treatment of economic questions.

Bacon, with bibliography of mathematics of economics by Irving Fisher, was published in The truth seems to be that his results are in some cases of little importance, in others of questionable correctness, and that, in the abstractions to which he has recourse in order to facilitate his calculations, an essential part of the real conditions of the problem is sometimes omitted. His pages abound in symbols representing unknown functions, the form of the function being left to be ascertained by observation of facts, which he does not regard as a part of his task, or only some known properties of the undetermined function being used as bases for deduction.

From time to time the sport has been pursued by various nations against various animals, but the recognized method has generally been the coursing of the hare by greyhounds. Such sport is of great antiquity, and is fully described by Arrian in his Cynegeticus about A. Other Greek and Latin authors refer to the sport; but during the middle ages it was but little heard of. Apart from private coursing for the sake of filling the pot with game, public coursing has become an exhilarating sport. The private sportsman seldom possesses good strains of blood to breed his greyhounds from or has such opportunities of trying them as the public courser.

The oldest regular coursing club of which any record exists is that of Swaffham, in Norfolk, which was founded by Lord Orford in ; and in the Ashdown Park Berkshire meeting was established. During the next seventy years many other large and influential societies sprang up throughout England and Scotland, the Altcar Club on the Sefton estates, near Liverpool being founded in The season lasts about six months, beginning in the middle of September.

It was not until that a coursing parliament, so to speak, was formed, and a universally accepted code of rules drawn up. In that year the National Coursing Club was founded. Their rules govern meetings, and their committee adjudicate on matters of dispute. A comparative trial of two dogs, and not the capture of the game pursued, is the great distinctive trait of modern coursing. A greyhound stud-book was started in At a meeting an agreed-on even number of entries are made for each stake, and the ties drawn by lot.

A staff of beaters drive the hares out of their coverts or other hiding-places, whilst the slipper has the pair of dogs in hand, and slips them simultaneously by an arrangement of nooses, when they have both sighted a hare promising a good course. The judge accompanies on horseback, and the six points whereby he decides a course are— 1 speed; 2 the go-by, or when a greyhound starts a clear length behind his opponent, passes him in the straight run, and gets a clear length in front; 3 the turn, where the hare turns at not less than a right angle; 4 the wrench, where the hare turns at less than a right angle; 5 the kill; 6 the trip, or unsuccessful effort to kill.

In the United States, several British colonies, and other countries, the name has been adopted, and Waterloo Coursing Cups are found there as in England. Dansey ; T. Blaine, Encyclopaedia of Rural Sports 3rd ed. Walsh, The Greyhound 3rd ed. To the execution of this vast undertaking he devoted his life. Here elders were appointed, and the preaching of women, as well as pretended revelations, was condemned. But there were as yet no ordained pastors. Pierre Corteiz was therefore sent to seek ordination.

It was impossible fully to carry out this menace. But persecution raged, especially against the pastors. A price was set on the life of Court; and in he escaped to Lausanne. He had the title of deputy-general of the churches, and was really the pillar of their hope. Court formed the design of writing a history of Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live to carry out. He died at Lausanne in He was the father of the more generally known Antoine Court de Gebelin q. Haag, La France protestante , vol. Such assemblies in early times exercised political and legislative as well as judicial functions. But these have now been almost entirely separated everywhere, and only judicial bodies are now usually called courts.

In every court, says Blackstone, there must be three parts,—an actor or plaintiff, reus or defendant, and judex , or judge. The language of legal fictions, which English lawyers invariably use in all constitutional subjects, makes the king the ultimate source of all judicial authority, and assumes his personal presence in all the courts. In all these courts the king is supposed in contemplation of law to be always present; but as that is in fact impossible, he is then represented by his judges, whose power is only an emanation of the royal prerogative.

These words might give a false impression of the historical and legal relations of the courts and the crown, if it is not remembered that they are nothing more than the expression of a venerable fiction. The administration of justice was, indeed, one of the functions of the king in early times; the king himself sat on circuit so late as the reign of Edward IV. The last judicial act of an English king, if such it can be called, was that by which James I. Since the establishment of parliamentary government the courts take their law directly from the legislature, and the king is only connected with them indirectly as a member of the legislative body.

The courts exercising jurisdiction in England are divided by certain features which may here be briefly indicated. We may distinguish between 1 superior and inferior courts. The former are the courts of common law and the court of chancery, now High Court of Justice. For it is a settled rule and maxim that nothing shall be averred against a record, nor shall any plea or even proof be admitted to the contrary. And if the existence of the record shall be denied it shall be tried by nothing but itself; that is, upon bare inspection whether there be any such record or no; else there would be no end of disputes. In the former the first hearing in any judicial proceeding takes place; in the latter the judgment of the first court is brought under review.

Of the superior courts, the High Court of Justice in its various divisions is a court of first instance. Over it is the court of appeal, and over that again the House of Lords. The High Court of Justice is through divisional courts a court of appeal for inferior courts. Some, while administering the ordinary municipal law, have or had jurisdiction exclusive of their superior courts; such were the common pleas of Durham and Lancaster.

The distribution of judicial business among the various courts of law in England may be exhibited as follows. Criminal Courts. Besides punishing by summary conviction, justices may commit prisoners for trial at the assizes. The corresponding court in a borough is presided over by a recorder. The assize courts, as they are called, sit in general in each county twice a year, following the division of circuits; but additional assizes are also held under acts of and , which permit several counties to be united together for that purpose see Circuit.

London, which occupies an exceptional position in all matters of judicature, has a high criminal court of its own, established by the Central Criminal Court Act , under the name of the central criminal court. Its judges usually present are a rota selected from the superior judges of common law, the recorder, common serjeant, and the judge of the City of London court. To the criminal appeal court there is an appeal both on questions of fact and of law see Appeal. Civil Courts. Otherwise, and excepting the special and peculiar jurisdictions above mentioned, the civil business of England and Wales may be said to be divided between the county courts taking small cases and the High Court of Justice taking all others.

The effect of the Judicature Acts on the constitution of the superior courts may be briefly stated. There is now one Supreme Court of Judicature, consisting of two permanent divisions called the High Court of Justice and the court of appeal. The former takes the jurisdiction of the court of chancery, the three common law courts, the courts of admiralty, probate, and divorce, the courts of pleas at Lancaster and Durham, and the courts created by commissions of assize, oyer and terminer, and gaol delivery. The latter takes the jurisdiction of the court of appeal in chancery including chancery of Lancaster , the court of the lord warden of the stannaries, and of the exchequer chamber, and the appellate jurisdiction in admiralty and heresy matters of the judicial committee; and power is given to the sovereign to transfer the remaining jurisdiction of that court to the court of appeal.

By the Appellate Jurisdiction Act of the House of Lords is enabled to sit for the hearing of appeals from the English court of appeal and the Scottish and Irish courts during the prorogation and dissolution of parliament. The lords in ordinary are an innovation in the constitution of the House. The history of English courts affords a remarkable illustration of the continuity that characterizes English institutions. It might perhaps be too much to say that all the courts now sitting in England may be traced back to a common origin, but at any rate the higher courts are all offshoots from the same original judicature.

Leaving out of account the local courts, we find the higher jurisdiction after the Norman Conquest concentrated along with all other public functions in the king and council. In relation to the revenue it became the exchequer, under which name a separate court grew up whose special field was the judicial business arising out of revenue cases. Similar developments of the same authority were the court of requests which was destroyed by a decision of the common pleas and the court of star chamber—a court of criminal equity, as it has been called,—which, having been made the instrument of tyranny, was abolished in Even then the productive power of the council was not exhausted; the judicial committee of the privy council, established in , superseding the previous court of delegates, exercises the jurisdiction in appeal belonging to the king in council.

The appellate jurisdiction of the Lords rests on their claim to be the representatives of the ancient great council of the realm. United States. It consists of the Supreme Court, the circuit courts, and the district courts. The Supreme Court is created by the Constitution, and consisted in of nine judges, who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. They hold office during good behaviour, i. The court sits at Washington from October to July in every year. The sessions of the court are held in the Capitol. A rule requiring the presence of six judges to pronounce a decision prevents the division of the court into two or more benches; and while this secures a thorough consideration of every case, it also retards the despatch of business.

Every case is discussed twice by the whole body, once to ascertain the view of the majority, which is then directed to be set forth in a written opinion; then again, when the written opinion, prepared by one of the judges, is submitted for criticism and adoption by the court as its judgment. Circuit courts of appeals, established to relieve the Supreme Court, consist of three judges two forming a quorum , and are made up of the circuit and district judges of each circuit and the Supreme Court justice assigned to the circuit.

Some cases may, however, be appealed to the Supreme Court from the circuit court of appeals, and others directly from the lower courts. The district courts number ninety, in most cases having a single justice. There is also a special tribunal called the court of claims, which deals with the claims of private persons against the Federal government. It is not strictly a part of the general judicial system, but is a creation of Congress designed to relieve that body of a part of its own labours. The jurisdiction of the Federal courts extends only to those cases in which the Constitution makes Federal law applicable.

All other cases are left to the state courts, from which there is no appeal to the Federal courts, unless where some specific point arises which is affected by the Federal Constitution or a Federal law. The classes of cases dealt with by the Federal courts are as follows:—. Cases in law and equity arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made under their authority;. Controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof and foreign states, citizens or subjects Const.

The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is original in cases affecting ambassadors, and wherever a state is a party; in other cases it is appellate. In some matters the jurisdiction of the Federal courts is exclusive; in others it is concurrent with that of the state courts. As it frequently happens that cases come before state courts in which questions of Federal law arise, a provision has been made whereby due respect for the latter is secured by giving the party to a suit who relies upon Federal law, and whose contention is overruled by a state court, the right of having the suit removed to a Federal court.

The power exercised by the Supreme Court in declaring statutes of Congress or of state legislatures or acts of the Executive to be invalid because inconsistent with the Federal Constitution, has been deemed by many Europeans a peculiar and striking feature of the American system. There is, however, nothing novel or mysterious about it. As the Federal Constitution, which emanates directly from the people, is the supreme law of the land everywhere, any statute passed by any lower authority whether the Federal Congress or a state legislature , which contravenes the Constitution, must necessarily be invalid in point of law, just as in the United Kingdom a railway by-law which contravened an act of parliament would be invalid. Now, the functions of judicial tribunals—of all courts alike, whether Federal or state, whether superior or inferior—is to interpret the law, and if any tribunal finds a Congressional statute or state statute inconsistent with the Constitution, the tribunal is obliged to hold such statute invalid.

A tribunal does this not because it has any right or power of its own in the matter, but because the people have, in enacting the Constitution as a supreme law, declared that all other laws inconsistent with it are ipso jure void. When a tribunal has ascertained that an inferior law is thus inconsistent, that inferior law is therewith, so far as inconsistent, to be deemed void. The tribunal does not enter any conflict with the Legislature or Executive. All it does is to declare that a conflict exists between two laws of different degrees of authority, whence it necessarily follows that the weaker law is extinct. This duty of interpretation belongs to all tribunals, but as constitutional cases are, if originating in a lower court, usually carried by appeal to the Supreme Court, men have grown accustomed to talk of the Supreme Court as in a special sense the guardian of the Constitution.

The Federal courts never deliver an opinion on any constitutional question unless or until that question is brought before them in the form of a lawsuit. A judgment of the Supreme Court is only a judgment on the particular case before it, and does not prevent a similar question being raised again in another lawsuit, though of course this seldom happens, because it may be assumed that the court will adhere to its former opinion.

There have, however, been instances in which the court has virtually changed its view on a constitutional question, and it is understood to be entitled so to do. The old sessions house was destroyed in the Gordon riots of The building erected in its place, although enlarged from time to time, was very incommodious, and a new structure, occupying the site of Newgate Prison, which was pulled down for the purpose, was completed in The old view that at least two freeholders were required for its composition is also now discarded. When the court-leet was differentiated, the court baron remained with feudal rights alone. It is mainly for the latter purpose that the court is now kept.

Nancy was Cummings' only child. After divorcing Thayer, Elaine married Cummings on March 19, However, the marriage ended after two months and they were divorced less than nine months later. Elaine left Cummings for a wealthy Irish banker, moved to Ireland, and took Nancy with her. Under the terms of the divorce Cummings was granted custody of Nancy for three months each year, but Elaine refused to abide by the agreement.

Cummings did not see his daughter again until He married his second wife Anne Minnerly Barton on May 1, , and they separated three years later in That same year, Anne obtained a Mexican divorce that was not officially recognized in the United States until August The year Cummings and Anne separated, he met Marion Morehouse, a fashion model and photographer. Although it is not clear whether the two were ever legally married, Morehouse lived with Cummings in a common-law marriage until his death in Political views According to his testimony in EIMI, Cummings had little interest in politics until his trip to the Soviet Union in , after which he shifted rightward on many political and social issues.

Despite his radical and bohemian public image, he was a Republican and, later, an ardent supporter of Joseph McCarthy. Poetry Despite Cummings' consanguinity with avant-garde styles, much of his work is quite traditional. Many of his poems are sonnets, albeit often with a modern twist, and he occasionally made use of the blues form and acrostics. Cummings' poetry often deals with themes of love and nature, as well as the relationship of the individual to the masses and to the world.

His poems are also often rife with satire. While his poetic forms and themes share an affinity with the romantic tradition, Cummings' work universally shows a particular idiosyncrasy of syntax, or way of arranging individual words into larger phrases and sentences. Many of his most striking poems do not involve any typographical or punctuation innovations at all, but purely syntactic ones. As well as being influenced by notable modernists including Gertrude Stein and Ezra Pound, Cummings' early work drew upon the imagist experiments of Amy Lowell.

Later, his visits to Paris exposed him to Dada and surrealism, which in turn permeated his work. He began to rely on symbolism and allegory where he once used simile and metaphor. In his later work, he rarely used comparisons that required objects that were not previously mentioned in the poem, choosing to use a symbol instead. While some of his poetry is free verse with no concern for rhyme or meter , many have a recognizable sonnet structure of 14 lines, with an intricate rhyme scheme.

A number of his poems feature a typographically exuberant style, with words, parts of words, or punctuation symbols scattered across the page, often making little sense until read aloud, at which point the meaning and emotion become clear. Cummings, who was also a painter, understood the importance of presentation, and used typography to "paint a picture" with some of his poems.

The seeds of Cummings' unconventional style appear well established even in his earliest work. Following his autobiographical novel The Enormous Room, Cummings' first published work was a collection of poems entitled Tulips and Chimneys This work was the public's first encounter with his characteristic eccentric use of grammar and punctuation. Some of Cummings' most famous poems do not involve much, if any, odd typography or punctuation, but still carry his unmistakable style, particularly in unusual and impressionistic word order. Cummings' work often does not act in accordance with the conventional combinatorial rules that generate typical English sentences for example, "they sowed their isn't".

His readings of Stein in the early part of the century probably served as a springboard to this aspect of his artistic development. Cummings also made use of inventive formations of compound words, as in "in Just" which features words such as "mud-luscious", "puddle-wonderful", and "eddieandbill. Literary critic R. Cummings also wrote children's books and novels.

A notable example of his versatility is an introduction he wrote for a collection of the comic strip Krazy Kat. Controversy Cummings is also known for controversial subject matter, as he has a large collection of erotic poetry. In his collection Xaipe: Seventy-One Poems, Cummings published two poems containing words that caused an outrage in some quarters. All the fuss perplexed him. The poems were commenting on prejudice, he pointed out, and not condoning it. He intended to show how derogatory words cause people to see others in terms of stereotypes rather than as individuals.

But readers were still hurt, despite his commentary. Jews, living in the painful aftermath of the Holocaust, felt his very words were antisemitic, in spite of their purpose. William Carlos Williams spoke out in his defense. Plays During his lifetime, Cummings published four plays. The production was directed by James Light. The play's main characters are "Him", a playwright, and "Me", his girlfriend.

Cummings said of the unorthodox play: Relax and give the play a chance to strut its stuff—relax, stop wondering what it is all 'about'—like many strange and familiar things, Life included, this play isn't 'about,' it simply is. Don't try to enjoy it, let it try to enjoy you. A Symposium to End Symposium. The play consists of dialogue between Man, the main character, and three "infrahumans", or inferior beings. The word anthropos is the Greek word for "man", in the sense of "mankind". The ballet is detailed in a "synopsis" as well as descriptions of four "episodes", which were published by Cummings in It has never been performed. Santa Claus: A Morality was probably Cummings' most successful play.

It is an allegorical Christmas fantasy presented in one act of five scenes. The play was inspired by his daughter Nancy, with whom he was reunited in It was first published in the Harvard College magazine the Wake. At the outset of the play, Santa Claus' family has disintegrated due to their lust for knowledge Science. After a series of events, however, Santa Claus' faith in love and his rejection of the materialism and disappointment he associates with Science are reaffirmed, and he is reunited with Woman and Child.

Name and capitalization Cummings's publishers and others have sometimes echoed the unconventional orthography in his poetry by writing his name in lowercase and without periods, but normal orthography uppercase and periods is supported by scholarship, and preferred by publishers today. Cummings himself used both the lowercase and capitalized versions, though he most often signed his name with capitals. The use of lowercase for his initials was popularized in part by the title of some books, particularly in the s, printing his name in lower case on the cover and spine. In the preface to E. Cummings: the growth of a writer critic Harry T. Moore notes " He [Cummings] had his name put legally into lower case, and in his later books the titles and his name were always in lower case.

Jon Grossman that he preferred the use of upper case for the particular edition they were working on. One Cummings scholar believes that on the rare occasions that Cummings signed his name in all lowercase, he may have intended it as a gesture of humility, not as an indication that it was the preferred orthography for others to use. Critic Edmund Wilson commented "Mr. It is not merely a question of an unconventional usage: unconventional punctuation may very well gain its effect His poems on the page are hideous. I'm a highly intelligent, articulate and well-educated human being with an intuitive but enterprising sense of responsibility and a strong moral compass that instinctively demarcates what's right and wrong.

Trust, confidentiality and having the courage, regardless of what I do, to formulate and stand by my own personal convictions are key aspects of my life and, unsurprisingly, are also principal characteristics I attach great importance to and naturally expect from those who want to play a meaningful role in my life. And my advice to you in that regard is to go and enrol in a kindergarten as you'll possibly have better luck there. My website is: www. It is asked by people who have just started to discover G. They ask the question with a mixture of wonder, gratitude and…resentment. They are amazed by what they have discovered. They are thankful to have discovered it. And they are almost angry that it has taken so long for them to make the discovery.

Nor in one paragraph. In fact, in spite of the fine biographies that have been written of him, he has never been captured between the covers of one book. Chesterton was the best writer of the 20th century. He said something about everything and he said it better than anybody else. But he was no mere wordsmith. He was very good at expressing himself, but more importantly, he had something very good to express.

The reason he was the greatest writer of the 20th century was because he was also the greatest thinker of the 20th century. Born in London, Chesterton was educated at St. He went to art school. In , he was asked to contribute a few magazine articles on art criticism, and went on to become one of the most prolific writers of all time. He wrote a hundred books, contributions to more, hundreds of poems, including the epic Ballad of the White Horse, five plays, five novels, and some two hundred short stories, including a popular series featuring the priest-detective, Father Brown.

In spite of his literary accomplishments, he considered himself primarily a journalist. He wrote over newspaper essays, including 30 years worth of weekly columns for the Illustrated London News, and 13 years of weekly columns for the Daily News. He also edited his own newspaper, G. To put it into perspective, four thousand essays is the equivalent of writing an essay a day, every day, for 11 years.

Chesterton was equally at ease with literary and social criticism, history, politics, economics, philosophy, and theology. His style is unmistakable, always marked by humility, consistency, paradox, wit, and wonder. His writing remains as timely and as timeless today as when it first appeared, even though much of it was published in throw away papers. And usually had no idea where or when his next appointment was.

He did much of his writing in train stations, since he usually missed the train he was supposed to catch. Where ought I to be? This absent-minded, overgrown elf of a man, who laughed at his own jokes and amused children at birthday parties by catching buns in his mouth, this was the man who wrote a book called The Everlasting Man, which led a young atheist named C. Lewis to become a Christian. This was the man who wrote an essay in the Illustrated London News that inspired Mohandas Gandhi to lead a movement to end British colonial rule in India. This was a man who, when commissioned to write a book on St. Thomas Aquinas, had his secretary check out a stack of books on St. Thomas from the library, opened the top book on the stack, thumbed through it, closed it, and proceeded to dictate a book on St.

Not just any book. Nothing short of genius can account for such an achievement. He has guessed all that which we had tried to demonstrate, and he has said all that which they were more or less clumsily attempting to express in academic formulas. Chesterton was one of the deepest thinkers who ever existed; he was deep because he was right; and he could not help being right; but he could not either help being modest and charitable, so he left it to those who could understand him to know that he was right, and deep; to the others, he apologized for being right, and he made up for being deep by being witty.

That is all they can see of him. Wells, Bertrand Russell, Clarence Darrow. According to contemporary accounts, Chesterton usually emerged as the winner of these contests, however, the world has immortalized his opponents and forgotten Chesterton, and now we hear only one side of the argument, and we are enduring the legacies of socialism, relativism, materialism, and skepticism. Ironically, all of his opponents regarded Chesterton with the greatest affection. Auden, Anthony Burgess, E. Schumacher, Neil Gaiman, and Orson Welles. To name a few. Chesterton is the most unjustly neglected writer of our time. Perhaps it is proof that education is too important to be left to educators and that publishing is too important to be left to publishers, but there is no excuse why Chesterton is no longer taught in our schools and why his writing is not more widely reprinted and especially included in college anthologies.

Well, there is an excuse. It seems that Chesterton is tough to pigeonhole, and if a writer cannot be quickly consigned to a category, or to one-word description, he risks falling through the cracks. Even if he weighs three hundred pounds. But there is another problem. Modern thinkers and commentators and critics have found it much more convenient to ignore Chesterton rather than to engage him in an argument, because to argue with Chesterton is to lose.

Chesterton argued eloquently against all the trends that eventually took over the 20th century: materialism, scientific determinism, moral relativism, and spineless agnosticism. He also argued against both socialism and capitalism and showed why they have both been the enemies of freedom and justice in modern society. And what did he argue for?

What was it he defended? He defended the poor. He defended the family. He defended beauty. And he defended Christianity and the Catholic Faith. And that is probably why he is neglected. The modern world prefers writers who are snobs, who have exotic and bizarre ideas, who glorify decadence, who scoff at Christianity, who deny the dignity of the poor, and who think freedom means no responsibility. But even though Chesterton is no longer taught in schools, you cannot consider yourself educated until you have thoroughly read Chesterton. And furthermore, thoroughly reading Chesterton is almost a complete education in itself. Chesterton is indeed a teacher, and the best kind.

He goes beyond that. He makes you laugh. I am I write to express the ways i feel. I write to show how I see things. I write out of inspiration. I write to write. Samuel Taylor Coleridge 21 October — 25 July was an English poet, Romantic, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. His critical work, especially on Shakespeare, was highly influential, and he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture.

He coined many familiar words and phrases, including the celebrated suspension of disbelief. He was a major influence, via Emerson, on American transcendentalism. Throughout his adult life, Coleridge suffered from crippling bouts of anxiety and depression; it has been speculated by some that he suffered from bipolar disorder, a condition as yet unidentified during his lifetime. Coleridge suffered from poor health that may have stemmed from a bout of rheumatic fever and other childhood illnesses. He was treated for these concerns with laudanum, which fostered a lifelong opium addiction. He had three children by his first wife. Samuel was the youngest of ten by Reverend Coleridge's second wife, Anne Bowden — Coleridge suggests that he "took no pleasure in boyish sports" but instead read "incessantly" and played by himself.

After John Coleridge died in , 8-year-old Samuel was sent to Christ's Hospital, a charity school founded in the 16th century in Greyfriars, London, where he remained throughout his childhood, studying and writing poetry. In one of a series of autobiographical letters written to Thomas Poole, Coleridge wrote: "At six years old I remember to have read Belisarius, Robinson Crusoe, and Philip Quarll — and then I found the Arabian Nights' Entertainments — one tale of which the tale of a man who was compelled to seek for a pure virgin made so deep an impression on me I had read it in the evening while my mother was mending stockings that I was haunted by spectres whenever I was in the dark — and I distinctly remember the anxious and fearful eagerness with which I used to watch the window in which the books lay — and whenever the sun lay upon them, I would seize it, carry it by the wall, and bask, and read.

I learnt from him, that Poetry, even that of the loftiest, and, seemingly, that of the wildest odes, had a logic of its own, as severe as that of science; and more difficult, because more subtle, more complex, and dependent on more, and more fugitive causes. In fancy I can almost hear him now, exclaiming Harp? Pen and ink, boy, you mean! Muse, boy, Muse? Pierian spring? Oh aye! He would often permit our theme exercises, Then placing the whole number abreast on his desk, he would ask the writer, why this or that sentence might not have found as appropriate a place under this or that other thesis: and if no satisfying answer could be returned, and two faults of the same kind were found in one exercise, the irrevocable verdict followed, the exercise was torn up, and another on the same subject to be produced, in addition to the tasks of the day.

Throughout his life, Coleridge idealized his father as pious and innocent, while his relationship with his mother was more problematic. His childhood was characterized by attention seeking, which has been linked to his dependent personality as an adult. He was rarely allowed to return home during the school term, and this distance from his family at such a turbulent time proved emotionally damaging.

In , he won the Browne Gold Medal for an ode that he wrote on the slave trade. In December , he left the college and enlisted in the Royal Dragoons using the false name "Silas Tomkyn Comberbache", perhaps because of debt or because the girl that he loved, Mary Evans, had rejected him. Afterwards, he was rumoured to have had a bout of severe depression. His brothers arranged for his discharge a few months later under the reason of "insanity" and he was readmitted to Jesus College, though he would never receive a degree from Cambridge.

Pantisocracy and marriage At the university, he was introduced to political and theological ideas then considered radical, including those of the poet Robert Southey. Coleridge joined Southey in a plan, soon abandoned, to found a utopian commune-like society, called Pantisocracy, in the wilderness of Pennsylvania. He grew to detest his wife, whom he only married because of social constraints. He eventually separated from her. Coleridge made plans to establish a journal, The Watchman, to be printed every eight days in order to avoid a weekly newspaper tax. The first issue of the short-lived journal was published in March ; it had ceased publication by May of that year. The years and , during which he lived in what is now known as Coleridge Cottage, in Nether Stowey, Somerset, were among the most fruitful of Coleridge's life.

In , Coleridge met poet William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy. Wordsworth, having visited him and being enchanted by the surroundings, rented Alfoxton Park, a little over three miles [5 km] away. Besides the Rime of The Ancient Mariner, he composed the symbolic poem Kubla Khan, written—Coleridge himself claimed—as a result of an opium dream, in "a kind of a reverie"; and the first part of the narrative poem Christabel. The writing of Kubla Khan, written about the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan and his legendary palace at Xanadu, was said to have been interrupted by the arrival of a "Person from Porlock" — an event that has been embellished upon in such varied contexts as science fiction and Nabokov's Lolita. In , Coleridge and Wordsworth published a joint volume of poetry, Lyrical Ballads, which proved to be the starting point for the English romantic movement.

Wordsworth may have contributed more poems, but the real star of the collection was Coleridge's first version of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. It was the longest work and drew more praise and attention than anything else in the volume. In the spring Coleridge temporarily took over for Rev. Toulmin grieved over the drowning death of his daughter Jane. Poetically commenting on Toulmin's strength, Coleridge wrote in a letter to John Prior Estlin, "I walked into Taunton eleven miles and back again, and performed the divine services for Dr. I suppose you must have heard that his daughter, Jane, on 15 April in a melancholy derangement, suffered herself to be swallowed up by the tide on the sea-coast between Sidmouth and Bere [sic] Beer.

These events cut cruelly into the hearts of old men: but the good Dr. Toulmin bears it like the true practical Christian, — there is indeed a tear in his eye, but that eye is lifted up to the Heavenly Father. During this period, he became interested in German philosophy, especially the transcendental idealism and critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant, and in the literary criticism of the 18th century dramatist Gotthold Lessing. Coleridge studied German and, after his return to England, translated the dramatic trilogy Wallenstein by the German Classical poet Friedrich Schiller into English. He continued to pioneer these ideas through his own critical writings for the rest of his life sometimes without attribution , although they were unfamiliar and difficult for a culture dominated by empiricism.

It was at Sockburn that Coleridge wrote his ballad-poem Love, addressed to Sara. The knight mentioned is the mailed figure on the Conyers tomb in ruined Sockburn church. The figure has a wyvern at his feet, a reference to the Sockburn worm slain by Sir John Conyers and a possible source for Lewis Carroll's Jabberwocky. The worm was supposedly buried under the rock in the nearby pasture; this was the 'greystone' of Coleridge's first draft, later transformed into a 'mount'. Coleridge's early intellectual debts, besides German idealists like Kant and critics like Lessing, were first to William Godwin's Political Justice, especially during his Pantisocratic period, and to David Hartley's Observations on Man, which is the source of the psychology which is found in Frost at Midnight.

Hartley argued that one becomes aware of sensory events as impressions, and that "ideas" are derived by noticing similarities and differences between impressions and then by naming them. Connections resulting from the coincidence of impressions create linkages, so that the occurrence of one impression triggers those links and calls up the memory of those ideas with which it is associated See Dorothy Emmet, "Coleridge and Philosophy". Coleridge was critical of the literary taste of his contemporaries, and a literary conservative insofar as he was afraid that the lack of taste in the ever growing masses of literate people would mean a continued desecration of literature itself.

In , he returned to England and shortly thereafter settled with his family and friends at Keswick in the Lake District of Cumberland to be near Grasmere, where Wordsworth had moved. Soon, however, he was beset by marital problems, illnesses, increased opium dependency, tensions with Wordsworth, and a lack of confidence in his poetic powers, all of which fuelled the composition of Dejection: An Ode and an intensification of his philosophical studies. Later life and increasing drug use In , he travelled to Sicily and Malta, working for a time as Acting Public Secretary of Malta under the Commissioner, Alexander Ball, a task he performed quite successfully. However, he gave this up and returned to England in Dorothy Wordsworth was shocked at his condition upon his return.

From to , Coleridge returned to Malta and then travelled in Sicily and Italy, in the hope that leaving Britain's damp climate would improve his health and thus enable him to reduce his consumption of opium. Thomas de Quincey alleges in his Recollections of the Lakes and the Lake Poets that it was during this period that Coleridge became a full-blown opium addict, using the drug as a substitute for the lost vigour and creativity of his youth. It has been suggested, however, that this reflects de Quincey's own experiences more than Coleridge's.

His opium addiction he was using as much as two quarts of laudanum a week now began to take over his life: he separated from his wife Sarah in , quarrelled with Wordsworth in , lost part of his annuity in , and put himself under the care of Dr. Daniel in In , Coleridge made his second attempt to become a newspaper publisher with the publication of the journal entitled The Friend. Given that Coleridge tended to be highly disorganized and had no head for business, the publication was probably doomed from the start. Coleridge financed the journal by selling over five hundred subscriptions, over two dozen of which were sold to members of Parliament, but in late , publication was crippled by a financial crisis and Coleridge was obliged to approach "Conversation Sharp", Tom Poole and one or two other wealthy friends for an emergency loan in order to continue.

Although it was often turgid, rambling, and inaccessible to most readers, it ran for 25 issues and was republished in book form a number of times. Years after its initial publication, The Friend became a highly influential work and its effect was felt on writers and philosophers from J. Mill to Emerson. Between and , this "giant among dwarfs", as he was often considered by his contemporaries, gave a series of lectures in London and Bristol — those on Shakespeare renewed interest in the playwright as a model for contemporary writers.

Much of Coleridge's reputation as a literary critic is founded on the lectures that he undertook in the winter of —11 which were sponsored by the Philosophical Institution and given at Scot's Corporation Hall off Fetter Lane, Fleet Street. Furthermore, Coleridge's mind was extremely dynamic and his personality was spasmodic. As a result of these factors, Coleridge often failed to prepare anything but the loosest set of notes for his lectures and regularly entered into extremely long digressions which his audiences found difficult to follow.

However, it was the lecture on Hamlet given on 2 January that was considered the best and has influenced Hamlet studies ever since. Before Coleridge, Hamlet was often denigrated and belittled by critics from Voltaire to Dr. Coleridge rescued Hamlet and his thoughts on the play are often still published as supplements to the text. Coleridge was regarded by many as the greatest living writer on the demonic and he accepted the commission, only to abandon work on it after six weeks. Until recently, scholars have accepted that Coleridge never returned to the project, despite Goethe's own belief in the s that Coleridge had in fact completed a long translation of the work. In September , Oxford University Press sparked a heated scholarly controversy by publishing an English translation of Goethe's work which purported to be Coleridge's long-lost masterpiece the text in question first appeared anonymously in In , Coleridge, with his addiction worsening, his spirits depressed, and his family alienated, took residence in the Highgate homes, then just north of London, of the physician James Gillman, first at South Grove and later at the nearby 3 The Grove.

Gillman was partially successful in controlling the poet's addiction. Colerdige remained in Highgate for the rest of his life, and the house became a place of literary pilgrimage of writers including Carlyle and Emerson. In Gillman's home, he finished his major prose work, the Biographia Literaria , a volume composed of 23 chapters of autobiographical notes and dissertations on various subjects, including some incisive literary theory and criticism. He composed much poetry here and had many inspirations — a few of them from opium overdose. Perhaps because he conceived such grand projects, he had difficulty carrying them through to completion, and he berated himself for his "indolence".

It is unclear whether his growing use of opium and the brandy in which it was dissolved was a symptom or a cause of his growing depression. He published other writings while he was living at the Gillman home, notably Sibylline Leaves , Aids to Reflection , and Church and State He died in Highgate, London on 25 July as a result of heart failure compounded by an unknown lung disorder, possibly linked to his use of opium. Coleridge had spent 18 years under the roof of the Gillman family, who built an addition onto their home to accommodate the poet. The practical intellects of the world did not much heed him, or carelessly reckoned him a metaphysical dreamer: but to the rising spirits of the young generation he had this dusky sublime character; and sat there as a kind of Magus, girt in mystery and enigma; his Dodona oak-grove Mr.

His poems directly and deeply influenced all the major poets of the age. He was known by his contemporaries as a meticulous craftsman who was more rigorous in his careful reworking of his poems than any other poet, and Southey and Wordsworth were dependent on his professional advice. His influence on Wordsworth is particularly important because many critics have credited Coleridge with the very idea of "Conversational Poetry".

As important as Coleridge was to poetry as a poet, he was equally important to poetry as a critic. Coleridge's philosophy of poetry, which he developed over many years, has been deeply influential in the field of literary criticism. This influence can be seen in such critics as A. Lovejoy and I. Even those who have never read the Rime have come under its influence: its words have given the English language the metaphor of an albatross around one's neck, the quotation of "water, water everywhere, nor any drop to drink" almost always rendered as "but not a drop to drink" , and the phrase "a sadder and a wiser man" again, usually rendered as "sadder but wiser man". Both Kubla Khan and Christabel have an additional "Romantic" aura because they were never finished.

Stopford Brooke characterised both poems as having no rival due to their "exquisite metrical movement" and "imaginative phrasing. The term itself was coined in by George McLean Harper, who borrowed the subtitle of The Nightingale: A Conversation Poem to describe the seven other poems as well. Harper himself considered that the eight poems represented a form of blank verse that is " In Robert Koelzer wrote about another aspect of this apparent "easiness", noting that Conversation poems such as " Coleridge's The Eolian Harp and The Nightingale maintain a middle register of speech, employing an idiomatic language that is capable of being construed as un-symbolic and un-musical: language that lets itself be taken as 'merely talk' rather than rapturous 'song'.

In , M. Abrams wrote a broad description that applies to the Conversation poems: "The speaker begins with a description of the landscape; an aspect or change of aspect in the landscape evokes a varied by integral process of memory, thought, anticipation, and feeling which remains closely intervolved with the outer scene. In the course of this meditation the lyric speaker achieves an insight, faces up to a tragic loss, comes to a moral decision, or resolves an emotional problem. Often the poem rounds itself to end where it began, at the outer scene, but with an altered mood and deepened understanding which is the result of the intervening meditation.

Abrams' essay has been called a "touchstone of literary criticism". The work delivered both biographical explanations of the author's life as well as his impressions on literature. The collection also contained an analysis of a broad range of philosophical principles of literature ranging from Aristotle to Immanuel Kant and Schelling and applied them to the poetry of peers such as William Wordsworth. Coleridge's explanation of metaphysical principles were popular topics of discourse in academic communities throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, and T. Eliot stated that he believed that Coleridge was "perhaps the greatest of English critics, and in a sense the last. However, Eliot also criticizes Coleridge for allowing his emotion to play a role in the metaphysical process, believing that critics should not have emotions that are not provoked by the work being studied.

Hugh Kenner in Historical Fictions, discusses Norman Furman's Coleridge, the Damaged Archangel and suggests that the term "criticism" is too often applied to Biographia Literaria, which both he and Furman describe as having failed to explain or help the reader understand works of art. Jenkins, M. Najjar, D. Watkins, Antiquity, 84 , Graeme Barker, Oxford University Press, Bellwood, Wiley-Blackwell, Stordeur, D. Helmer, G. Another question is about the purpose of cereals themselves.

Instead of cultivating or at least simply harvesting them for bread, some argue that we may have been doing so for beer. One reason being that barley, left to itself, ferments. Another possible reason might be that consuming alcohol might be part of ritual, which might be an aid to tribal bonding. Stevenson no beer but rather cereal-Food. Commentary: Liu et al. Eitam, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 28, , Liu, J. Wang, D. Rosenberg, H. Zhao, G. Lengyel, D. Nadel, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, , Arranz-Otaeguia, L. Gonzalez Carretero, M. Ramsey, D. Fuller, T. Richter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 31 , Willcox, Science, , Riehl, M.

Zeidi, N. Conard, Science, , Willcox, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 21 2 , Willcox, D. Stordeur, Antiquity, 86 , Colledge, J. Conolly, and S. Shennnan editors , University College London Press, Vouillamoz, P. McGovern, A. Ergul, G. Tevzadze, M. McGovern, J. Zhang, J. Tang, Z. Zhang, G. Hall, R. Moreau, A. Butrym, M. Richards, C. Wang, G. Cheng, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 51 , Larsen, Quaternary International, 1 , Taken as a whole, then, the popular and scholarly perception that quality of life improved with the acquisition of agriculture is incorrect. Larsen, Annual Review of Anthropology, , Steckel and Jerome C.

Rose editors , Cambridge University Press, Feynman, A. Ruzmaikin, Climatic Change, 84 3 , Step back once again to The wheat variant we come across is rare around the planet, but in this time and place, it would be no surprise to us. Why we choose to store anything at all at this particular time is unknown. But of all the seeds that we could have chosen, we probably choose these particular ones because their seeds happen to be a little bigger than other grass seeds.

It would make sense for us to gather them rather than other seeds. Also, although most of their stalks shatter as they ripen—so that their seeds fall to the ground, ready to sprout—the stalks of a few mutant wheat plants fail to shatter. Normally that strain would be rare. But from our point of view, as the last ice age ended, those few mutants might have saved some of our lives. We would probably ignore wheat stalks that had done the right thing and shattered.

But the few mutant plants would still have their ripe seeds on the stalk. That would leave them in the perfect position for us to harvest cheaply. Then, over time, we built more permanent seasonal shelters where they grew. Then, over time, we spent more and more time there. That gave those mutants an edge over their normal cousins, so they spread. As we kept selecting among them, they grew taller, too, which made them easier to harvest, and their seeds grew bigger, which made them more worthwhile to harvest, and easier to store.

What kept driving us all that time? The seven primary domesticates of the Fertile Crescent were: barley, emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, and sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs. Of the 56 known species of large-seeded grasses, 32 grow wild in the Mediterranean region. Brandolini, R. Salamini, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 19 10 , Heun, R. Klawan, R. Castagna, M. Accerbi, B. Borghi, F. Salamini, Science, , The Emergence of Agriculture, Bruce D. Smith, Scientific American Library, Domestication probably took at least a millennium or so given that early farmers had no idea what they were really up to.

A mathematical model of how long it might take for genetic change to spread in wild-type versus artificial selection grasses estimates that it might take 3, years for our selection to really change a plant. Allaby, D. Brown, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 37 , Tanno, G. Kislev, A. Hartmann, O. Bar-Yosef, Science, , Montague, G. Li, B. Gandolfi, R. Khan, B. Aken, S. Searle, P.

Minx, L. Hillier, D. Koboldt, B. Davis, C. Driscoll, C. Barr, K. Blackistone, J. Quilez, B. Lorente-Galdos, T. Marques-Bonet, C. Alkan, G. Thomas, M. Hahn, M. Menotti-Raymond, S. Lyons, W. Murphy, W. Warren, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 48 , Vigne, F. Briois, A. Zazzo, G. Willcox, T. Cucchi, S. Franel, R. Touquet, C. Martin, C. Moreau, C. Comby, J. Guilaine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 22 , Driscoll, J. Clutton-Brock, A. Kitchener, S. Driscoll, D. Macdonald, S. Zeder, Daniel G. Bradley, Eve Emswiller, and Bruce D. Smith editors , University of California Press, Pigs and cattle were each domesticated about 10Kya.

Horse domestication seems to date to about 6Kya, and donkeys to about 5Kya. Warmuth, A. Eriksson, M. Bower, G. Barker, E. Barrett, B. Hanks, S. Li, D. Lomitashvili, M. Ochir-Goryaeva, G. Sizonov, V. Soyonov, A. Manica, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 21 , Larson, R. Liu, X. Zhao, J. Yuan, D. Fuller, L. Barton, K. Dobney, Q. Fan, Z. Gu, X. Liu, Y. Luo, P. Lv, L. Andersson, N. Li, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 17 , Edwards, D. Magee, S. Park, P. McGettigan, A. Lohan, A. Murphy, E. Finlay, B. Shapiro, A. Chamberlain, M. Richards, D. Bradley, B. Loftus, D. Outram, N. Stear, R. Bendrey, S. Olsen, A. Kasparov, V. Zaibert, N. Thorpe, R. Evershed, Science, , Rossel, F. Marshall, J. Peters, T.

Pilgram, M. Adams, D. Today all those species can still reproduce on their own, but none of them would exist in the numbers they do without our intervention. Our planet now supports ten thousand million chickens, 1, million cows, over a thousand million sheep, million goats, and over million pigs. All those populations are perhaps a thousand times as large as they would be without us. Of course, they exist in such numbers at the expense of other species. Today we control their reproduction with selective breeding, hormones, and spaying, and one day, to make them even more suitable as food or pets, we may genetically remove their reproductive ability entirely, just as we in some sense have already done with maize and wheat and seedless grapes.

The Archaeology of Animals, Simon J. Davis, Yale University Press, One such example is the coastal tribes in the northwest of North America. Their subsistence was based on hunting, gathering, and fishing. They all had a tradition of potlatch. Slavery among them was economically valuable not for primary activities like fishing but secondary activities—like drying the fish for storage. Not so. There would be no point.

Thorpe, World Archaeology, 35 1 , Martin and David W. Freyer editors , Routledge, Killing or exploiting each other is ancient. Itino, K. Murase, Y. Sato, K. Inamori, T. Itioka, S. Quek, S. Wilson, Harvard University Press, , page Slavers and thieves: Some steal brood members for consumption. Ruano, O. Sanllorente, A. Lenoir, A. Tinaut, Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, , Cleptobiosis occurs when members of a species steal food, or sometimes nesting materials or other items of value, either from members of the same or a different species. This simple definition is not universally used, and there is some terminological confusion among cleptobiosis, cleptoparasitism, brood parasitism, and inquilinism. We first discuss the definitions of these terms and the confusion that arises from varying usage of the words.

We consider that cleptobiosis usually is derived evolutionarily from established foraging behaviors. Cleptobionts can succeed by deception or by force, and we review the literature on cleptobiosis by deception or force in social insects. Cleptobiosis is facilitated either by deception or physical force, and we discuss both mechanisms. Part of this discussion is an analysis of the ecological implications competition by interference and the evolutionary effects of cleptobiosis. We conclude with a comment on how cleptobiosis can increase the risk of disease or parasite spread among colonies of social insects.

Breed, C. Cook, M. Krasnec, Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, , Interestingly, the allele did not arrive in Europe with the first farmers. It became common only in the Bronze Age, many millenia after the domestication of cattle and the start of dairying. Mathieson, I. Mathieson, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35 12 , From then, lactase persistence apparently spread quickly in Europe, based on a study of one battle gravesite from around 5Kya, where it was very low in comparison to today. Burger, V. Link, J. Schulz, C. Sell, Z. Pochon, Y. Diekmann, A. Winkelbach, C. Reyna-Blanco, V. Bieker, J. Orschiedt, U. Brinker, A. Scheu, C.

Leuenberger, T. Bertino, R. Bollongino, G. Lidke, S. Jantzen, E. Kaiser, T. Terberger, Current Biology, 30 21 The text assumes it to be no more than 25 years. Hawks, E. Cochran, H. Harpending, R. Moyzis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 52 , Sabeti, P. Varilly, B. Fry, J. Lohmueller, E. Hostetter, C. Cotsapas, X. Xie, E. Byrne, S. McCarroll, R. Gaudet, S. Schaffner, E. Yi, Y. Liang, E. Huerta-Sanchez, X. Jin, Z. Cuo, J. Pool, X. Xu, H. Jiang, N. Vinckenbosch, T. Korneliussen, H. Zheng, T. Liu, W. He, K. Li, R. Luo, X. Nie, H. Wu, M. Zhao, H. Cao, J. Zou, Y. Shan, S. Li, Q. Yang, Asan, P. Ni, G. Tian, J. Xu, X. Liu, T. Jiang, R. Wu, G. Zhou, M. Tang, J. Qin, T. Wang, S. Feng, G. Li, Huasang, J. Luosang, W. Wang, F. Chen, Y. Wang, X. Zheng, Z.

Li, Z. Bianba, G. Yang, X. Tang, G. Gao, Y. Chen, X. Luo, L. Gusang, Z. Cao, Q. Zhang, W. Ouyang, X. Ren, H. Liang, H. Zheng, Y. Huang, J. Li, L. Bolund, K. Kristiansen, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, R. Li, S. Li, H. Yang, R.

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