🔥🔥🔥 Literary Devices In Shakespeares Like Niobe, All The Tears

Sunday, December 05, 2021 6:52:07 AM

Literary Devices In Shakespeares Like Niobe, All The Tears



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Literary Devices: How to Use Literary Elements to Improve Writing

Scene III. A room in the Castle. Therefore prepare you. I your commission will forthwith dispatch, And he to England shall along with you. The terms of our estate may not endure Hazard so near us as doth hourly grow Out of his brows. Most holy and religious fear it is To keep those many many bodies safe That live and feed upon your Majesty. The cease of majesty Dies not alone, but like a gulf doth draw What's near it with it. Or it is a massive wheel Fix'd on the summit of the highest mount, To whose huge spokes ten thousand lesser things whirlpool Are mortis'd and adjoin'd; which when it falls, Each small annexment, petty consequence, Attends the boisterous ruin Never alone Did the king sigh, but with a general groan. KING: Arm you, I pray you, to this speedy voyage, attached noisy destruction For we will fetters about upon this fear, Which now goes too free-footed.

Behind the arras I'll convey myself To hear the process. I'll warrant she'll tax him home, And as you said, and wisely was it said, 'Tis meet that some more audience than a mother, Since nature makes them partial, should o'erhear The speech, of vantage. Fare you well, my liege, I'll call upon you ere you go to bed, And tell you what I know. KING: Thanks, dear my lord. Pray can I not, Though inclination be as sharp as will. My stronger guilt defeats my strong intent, And, like a man to double business bound, I stand in pause where I shall first begin, And both neglect. What if this cursed hand Were thicker than itself with brother's blood, Is there not rain enough in the sweet heavens To wash it white as snow?

Whereto serves mercy But to confront the visage of offense? Then I'll look up. My fault is past, but, O, what form of prayer Can serve my turn? May one be pardon'd and retain the offense, In the corrupted currents of this world Offense's gilded hand may shove by justice; And oft 'tis seen the wicked prize itself Buys out the law, but 'tis not so above: There is no shuffling, there the action lies In his true nature; and we ourselves compell'd, bribing Even to the teeth and forehead of our faults, To give in evidence.

What then? What rests? Try what repentance can. What can it not? Yet what can it, when one cannot repent? O wretched state! O bosom black as death! Make assay, Bow, stubborn knees, and heart, with strings of steel, Be soft as sinews of the new-born babe! All may be well. That would be scann'd : A villain kills my father; and for that I, his sole son, do this same villain send will have to think about this To heaven. O, this is hire and salary, not revenge. He took my father grossly, full of bread, With all his crimes broad blown, as flush as May; And how his audit stands who knows save heaven? And am I then reveng'd, To take him in the purging of his soul, When he is fit and season'd for his passage? My mother stays, This physic but prolongs thy sickly days.

The moment passes when Claudius concludes that god's forgiveness would only come from admitting what he had done and giving up the things he gained--the crown, the power, and the queen, which he could not bring himself to do. Hamlet arrives at the King's chamber intending to exact revenge. He can see but not hear Claudius. When it appears the King is praying, Hamlet's over-thinking once more causes him to hesitate. Even with the knowledge discovered during the players' performance, he talks himself out of acting because the moment is not perfect.

In delaying, Hamlet opens the door for greater violence. The Queen's quarters. Look you lay home to him. Tell him his pranks have been too broad to bear with, And that your Grace hath screen'd and stood between Much heat and him. I'll silence me even here. Withdraws, I hear him coming. Help, ho! A rat? Dead for a ducat, dead! Almost as bad, good mother, As kill a king and marry with his brother.

I took thee for thy better. Take thy fortune; Thou find'st to be too busy is some danger. Peace, sit you down, And let me wring your heart, for so I shall If it be made of penetrable stuff, If damned custom have not brass'd it so That it is proof and bulwark against sense. HAMLET: Such an act That blurs the grace and blush of modesty, Calls virtue hypocrite, takes off the rose From the fair forehead of an innocent love And sets a blister there, makes marriage-vows As false as dicers' oaths: O, such a deed As from the body of contraction plucks The very soul, and sweet religion makes A rhapsody of words.

Heaven's face does glow confused mass burn Yea, this solidity and compound mass , With heated visage, as against the doom, Is thought-sick at the act. See what a grace was seated on this brow: Hyperion's curls, the front of Jove himself, An eye like Mars, to threaten and command, portraits the sun-god's A station like the herald Mercury New lighted on a heaven-kissing hill, A combination and a form, indeed, Where every god did seem to set his seal To give the world assurance of a man. Look you now what follows: Here is your husband, like a milldew'd ear Blasting his wholesome brother.

Have you eyes? Could you on this fair mountain leave to feed, And batten on this moor? Ha, have you eyes? Sense sure you have, Else could you not have motion, but sure that sense Is apoplex'd , for madness would not err; Nor sense to ecstacy was ne'er so thrall'd But it reserv'd some quantity of choice To serve in such a difference What devil was't That thus hath cozen'd you at hoodman-blind? O shame, where is thy blush? Rebellious hell, without If thou canst mutine in a matron's bones, To flaming youth let virtue be as wax And melt in her own fire. Proclaim no shame When the compulsive ardore gives the charge, Since frost itself as actively doth burn, break away And reason panders will. Thou turn'st mine eyes into my very soul, And there I see such black and grained spots As will not leave their tinct A slave that is not twentieth part the tithe Of your precedent lord, a vice of kings, A cutpurse of the empire and the rule, That from a shelf the precious diadem stole, And put it in his pocket-- QUEEN: No more!

What would your gracious figure? HAMLET: Do you not come your tardy son to chide, That, laps'd in time and passion, lets go by allows time and fury to pass The important acting of your dread command? O, say! This visitation Is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose. But, look, amazement on thy mother sits, pressing O, step between her and her fighting soul. Conceit in weakest bodies strongest works, Speak to her, Hamlet. QUEEN: Alas, how is't with you, imagination That you do bend your eye on vacancy, And with the incorporal air do hold discourse?

Forth at your eyes your spirits wildly peep; And, as the sleeping soldiers in the alarm, Your bedded hair, like life in excrements , hair, standing on end, as if shocked Start up and stand an end. O gentle son, Upon the heat and flame of thy distemper Sprinkle cool patience. Whereon do you look? Look you how pale he glares! His form and cause conjoin'd, preaching to stones, Would make them capable. Look where he goes, even now, out at the portal! My pulse as yours doth temperately keep time, And makes as healthful music. It is not madness That I have utter'd. Bring me to the test, And I the matter will re-word, which madness Would gambol from.

Mother, for love of grace, Lay not that flattering unction to your soul, That not your trespass but my madness speaks: It will but skin and film the ulcerous place, Whilst rank corruption, mining all within, leap away from a salve or soothing lotion Infects unseen. Confess yourself to heaven, Repent what's past, avoid what is to come, And do not spread the compost on the weeds To make them ranker.

Forgive me this my virtue, For in the fatness of these pursy times breathless, swollen Virtue itself of vice must pardon beg, Yea, curb and woo for leave to do him good. That monster custom, who all sense doth eat, Of habits evil, is angel yet in this, That to the use of actions fair and good He likewise gives a frock or livery That aptly is put on Refrain to-night, And that shall lend a kind of easiness To the next abstinence, the next more easy; For use almost can change the stamp of nature, like a uniform, put on without having to consider its appearance And either curb the devil, or throw him out With wondrous potency. Once more, good-night; And when you are desirous to be blest, I'll blessing beg of you.

I will bestow him, and will answer well The death I gave him. So again, good-night. I must be cruel only to be kind. One word more, good lady. HAMLET: Not this, by no means, that I bid you do: Let the bloat king tempt you again to bed, Pinch wanton on your cheek, call you his mouse, And let him, for a pair of reechy kisses, Or paddling in your neck with his damn'd fingers, Make you to ravel all this matter out, That I essentially am not in madness, reeking But mad in craft.

Who would do so? No, in despite of sense and secrecy, frog woman chaser Unpeg the basket on the house's top, Let the birds fly, and like the famous ape, To try conclusions, in the basket creep And break your own neck down. Let it work, For 'tis the sport to have the enginer Hoist with his own petard and 't shall go hard But I will delve one yard below their mines, And blow them at the moon: O, 'tis most sweet When in one line two crafts directly meet. This man shall set me packing; petard, an explosive device destroyed by his own doing I'll lug the guts into the neighbor room. Mother, goodnight indeed. This counsellor Is now most still, most secret, and most grave, Who was in life a foolish prating knave.

Come, sir, to draw toward an end with you. Stabbing through the curtain at the person he believes is Claudius, Hamlet's intellect fails him. By not making certain this time, he accidentally kills Polonius. ACT IV. Where is your son? How does Hamlet? In his lawless fit Behind the arras hearing something stir, Whips out his rapier, cries "A rat, a rat! KING: O heavy deed! It had been so with us had we been there. Alas, how shall this bloody deed be answer'd? It will be laid to us, whose providence Should have kept short, restrain'd, and out of haunt in seclusion from others This mad young man; but so much was our love, We would not understand what was most fit, But, like the owner of a foul disease, To keep it from divulging, let it feed Even on the pith of life.

Where is he gone? Ho, Guildenstern! Go seek him out, speak fair, and bring the body Into the chapel. I pray you, haste in this. O, come away! My soul is full of discord and dismay. The prince will be sent to England under the pretense of keeping him safe and avoiding the anger of the people for having killed Polonius. Another room in the Castle. Lord Hamlet! Who calls on Hamlet? O, here they come. Besides, to be demanded of a sponge, what replication should be made by the son of a king?

But such officers do the King best service in the end: he keeps them, like an ape an apple, in the corner of his jaw; first mouthed, to be last swallowed. When he needs what you have gleaned, it is but squeezing you, and, sponge, you shall be dry again. Hide fox, and all after. KING: I have sent to seek him and to find the body. Yet must not we put the strong law on him. He's lov'd of the distracted multitude, Who like not in their judgment, but their eyes; And where 'tis so, the offender's scourge is weigh'd, punishment But never the offense. To bear all smooth and even, This sudden sending him away must seem Deliberate pause. Diseases desperate grown By desperate appliance are reliev'd, Or not at all. KING: But where is he?

KING: At supper? Your worm is your only emperor for diet: we fat all creatures else to fat us, and we fat ourselves for maggots; your fat king and your lean beggar is but variable service , two dishes, but to one table-- that's at this moment gnawing at him separate courses of a meal the end. KING: Alas, alas! KING: What dost thou mean by this? But, if indeed, you find him not within this month, you shall nose him as you go up the stairs into the lobby.

KING: So is it, if thou knew'st our purposes. But, come, for England! Farewell, dear mother. Come, for England! Delay it not; I'll have him hence to-night. Away, for everything is seal'd and done That else leans on the affair. Pray you make haste. Do it, England, For like the hectic in my blood he rages, And thou must cure me. Till I know 'tis done, How e'er my haps , my joys were ne'er begun. Through a sarcastic play on words, Hamlet demeans the king by pointing out that kings and beggars all become food for maggots. The Danish coast near the Castle. Tell him that, by his license, Fortinbras Craves the conveyance of a promis'd march Over his kingdom.

You know the rendezvous. If that his majesty would aught with us, We shall express our duty in his eye, And let him know so. This is the imposthume of much wealth and peace, That inward breaks, and shows no cause without Why the man dies. I humbly thank you, sir. What is a man, If his chief good and market of his time Be but to sleep and feed? Sure He that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and godlike reason To fust in us unus'd. Now, whether it be Bestial oblivion, or some craven scruple Of thinking too precisely on the event-- A thought which quarter'd hath but one part wisdom And ever three parts coward--I do not know become musty, foul smelling Why yet I live to say "This thing's to do;" Sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means To do't.

Examples gross as earth exhort me: Witness this army of such mass and charge, Led by a delicate and tender prince, Whose spirit with divine ambition puff'd Makes mouths at the invisible event, Exposing what is mortal and unsure To all that fortune, death, and danger dare, Even for an egg-shell. Rightly to be great Is not to stir without great argument, But greatly to find quarrel in a straw When honor's at the stake. How stand I, then, That have a father kill'd, a mother stain'd, Excitements of my reason and my blood, And let all sleep, while to my shame I see The imminent death of twenty thousand men That for a fantasy and trick of fame Go to their graves like beds, fight for a plot Whereon the numbers cannot try the cause, Which is not tomb enough and continent To hide the slain?

When the ship carrying all three to England is met by pirates, Hamlet turns the tables on Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and sends them to their deaths at the hands of the English. He returns to Denmark. Once back on shore, Hamlet encounters Fortinbras's soldiers and, learning of his intention to fight on principle for a worthless piece of land, he is again plagued by the reality that he has not been able to complete his own mission of revenge, which is a great and just cause. Her speech is nothing, Yet the unshaped use of it doth move The hearers to collection; they yawn at it, And botch the words up fit to their own thoughts, Which, as her winks, and nods, and gestures yield them, disturbed way piece together Indeed would make one think there might be thought, Though nothing sure, yet much unhappily.

By his cockle hat and' staff And his sandal shoon. Nay, pray you mark. KING: How do you, pretty lady? They say the owl was a baker's daughter. God be at your table! KING: Conceit upon her father. Then up he rose and donn'd his clothes, And dupp'd the chamber door, Let in the maid, that out a maid Never departed more. Young men will do't if they come to't, By cock, they are to blame. Quoth she, 'Before you tumbled me, contraction for Jesus slang variant for God You promis'd me to wed. We must be patient, but I cannot choose but weep to think they would lay him i' the cold ground.

My brother shall know of it, and so I thank you for your good counsel. Come, my coach! Good night, ladies, good night. Sweet ladies, good night, good night. O Gertrude, Gertrude, When sorrows come, they come not single spies, But in battalions: first, her father slain; Next, your son gone, and he most violent author Of his own just remove; the people muddied, Thick and unwholesome in their thoughts and whispers For good Polonius' death; and we have done but greenly In hugger-mugger to inter him; poor Ophelia confused not wisely rashly, hastily Divided from herself and her fair judgment, Without the which we are pictures, or mere beasts; Last, and as much containing as all these, Her brother is in secret come from France, Feeds on his wonder, keeps himself in clouds , holds on to suspicion rather than learning facts.

The ocean, overpeering of his list , Eats not the flats with more impetuous haste Than young Laertes, in a riotous head, O'erbears your officers. The rabble call him lord, overflowing its beaches And as the world were now but to begin, Antiquity forgot, custom not known, The ratifiers and props of every word, They cry "Choose we! Laertes shall be king! Laertes king! O, this is counter, you false Danish dogs! Sirs, stand you all without. ALL: We will, we will. Let him go, Gertrude, do not fear our person: There's such divinity doth hedge a king, That treason can but peep to what it would, Acts little of his will. Tell me, Laertes, Why thou art thus incens'd.

Let him go, Gertrude. Speak, man. KING: Dead. KING: Let him demand his fill. I'll not be juggled with. To hell, allegiance! Conscience and grace, to the profoundest pit! To this point I stand, That both the worlds. I give to negligence , Let come what comes, only I'll be reveng'd Most throughly for my father. KING: Who shall stay you? KING: Good Laertes, If you desire to know the certainty Of your dear father, is't writ in your revenge That, sweepstake , you will draw both friend and foe, Winner and loser?

KING: Will you know them then? By heaven, thy madness shall be paid with weight, Till our scale turn the beam. O rose of May! O heavens, is't possible a young maid's wits Should be as mortal as an old man's life? Nature is fine in love; and where 'tis fine, It sends some precious instance of itself a piece; Ophelia's love for her father was so deep that her grief has broken her and led her to seek him in death. O how the wheel becomes it! It is the false steward, that stole his master's daughter. And there is pansies, that's for thoughts. There's rue for you, symbols of flattery fennel and ingratitude columbines symbol of sorrow and regret and here's some for mewe may call it herb of grace o' Sundays.

You may wear your rue with a difference. There's a daisy. I would give you some violets , but they wither'd all when my father died. They say he made a good end-- [ Sings. And will he not come again? No, no, he is dead, Go to thy death-bed, He never will come again. His beard was as white as snow, All flaxen was his pole , He is gone, he is gone, pale, colorless head And we cast away moan, God ha' mercy on his soul! God b' wi' ye. Go but apart, Make choice of whom your wisest friends you will, And they shall hear and judge 'twixt you and me. If by direct or by collateral hand They find us touch'd , we will our kingdom give, at fault Our crown, our life, and all that we call ours, To you in satisfaction; but if not, By you content to lend your patience to us, And we shall jointly labor with your soul To give it due content.

His means of death, his obscure funeral, No trophy, sword, nor hatchment o'er his bones, No noble rite nor formal ostentation -- Cry to be heard, as 'twere from heaven to earth, tombstone deserved ceremony That I must call't in question. I pray you go with me. Laertes's instinctive response to the loss of his father is a sharp contrast to Hamlet's excessive deliberation. Scene VI. They say they have letters for you. There's a letter for you, sir,--it comes from the ambassador that was bound for England-- if your name be Horatio, as I am let to know it is.

Ere we were two days old at sea, a pirate of very warlike appointment gave us chase. Finding ourselves too slow of sail, we put on a compelled valor, and in the grapple I boarded them. On the instant they got clear of our ship, so I alone became their prisoner. They have dealt with me like thieves of mercy , but they knew what they did; I am to do a good turn for them. Let the King have the letters I have sent, and repair thou to me with as much speed as thou wouldst fly death.

I have words to speak in thine ear will make thee dumb; yet are they much too kindly, helpful thieves light for the bore of the matter. These good fellows will bring thee where I am. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern hold their course for England, of them I have much to tell thee. He that thou knowest thine, Hamlet. But tell me Why you proceeded not against these feats, So criminal and so capital in nature, As by your safety, greatness, wisdom, all things else You mainly were stirr'd up. The Queen his mother weak Lives almost by his looks, and for myself-- My virtue or my plague, be it either which-- She is so conjunctive to my life and soul, That, as the star moves not but in his sphere, I could not but by her.

The other motive, Why to a public count I might not go, Is the great love the general gender bear him; Who, dipping all his faults in their affection, Work, like the spring that turneth wood to stone, Convert his gyves to graces; so that my arrows, Too slightly timber'd for so loud a wind, Would have reverted to my bow again, But not where I have aim'd them. KING: Break not your sleeps for that.

You must not think That we are made of stuff so flat and dull That we can let our beard be shook with danger And think it pastime. You shortly shall hear more. What news? Claudius is telling Laertes that he should not think Claudius would allow Hamlet's disrespectful and murderous behavior to go unpunished. Who brought them? They were given me by Claudio. He receiv'd them him that brought them. KING: Laertes, you shall hear them. To-morrow shall I beg leave to see your kingly eyes, alone; without belongings when I shall, first asking your pardon thereunto , recount the occasions of my sudden and more strange return.

Are all the rest come back? Or is it some abuse, and no such thing? And in a postscript here, he says "alone. But let him come, It warms the very sickness in my heart handwriting ; signature That I shall live and tell him to his teeth, 'Thus didst thou. KING: To thine own peace. If he be now return'd As checking at his voyage, and that he means No more to undertake it, I will work him To an exploit, now ripe in my device, Under the which he shall not choose but fall; And for his death no wind of blame shall breathe; But even his mother shall uncharge the practice And call it accident. KING: It falls right. You have been talk'd of since your travel much, And that in Hamlet's hearing, for a quality Wherein they say you shine. Your sum of parts Did not together pluck such envy from him As did that one, and that, in my regard, Of the unworthiest siege.

KING: A very riband in the cap of youth, Yet needful too; for youth no less becomes The light and careless livery that it wears Than settled age his sables and his weeds , clothing Importing health and graveness. Two months since Here was a gentleman of Normandy: I've seen myself, and serv'd against, the French, And they can well on horseback, but this gallant Had witchcraft in't, he grew unto his seat; And to such wondrous doing brought his horse, As had he been incorps'd and demi-natur'd With the brave beast. So far he topp'd my thought That I, in forgery of shapes and tricks, Come short of what he did. KING: The very same. He is the brooch indeed jeweled pin And gem of all the nation. KING: He made confession of you; And gave you such a masterly report For art and exercise in your defense, And for your rapier most especial, That he cried out, 'twould be a sight indeed If one could match you.

The scrimers of their nation He swore, had neither motion, guard, nor eye, If you oppos'd them. Sir, this report of his Did Hamlet so envenom with his envy fencers That he could nothing do but wish and beg Your sudden coming o'er to play with you. KING: Laertes, was your father dear to you? There lives within the very flame of love A kind of wick or snuff that will abate it; And nothing is at a like goodness still ; Nothing stays the same forever For goodness, growing to a plurisy , Dies in his own too much. That we would do, We should do when we would; for this "would" changes, And hath abatements and delays as many As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents, excess, abundance.

I bought an unction of a mountebank , So mortal that, but dip a knife in it, Where it draws blood no cataplasm so rare, Collected from all simples that have virtue ointment charlatan, quack plants with curing powers Under the moon, can save the thing from death This is but scratch'd withal. I'll touch my point With this contagion, that if I gall him slightly, It may be death. If this should fail, And that our drift look through our bad performance, 'Twere better not assay'd; therefore this project Should have a back or second, that might hold If this did blast in proof. Soft, let me see. We'll make a solemn wager on your cunnings-- I ha't! When in your motion you are hot and dry,-- As make your bouts more violent to that end,-- And that he calls for drink, I'll have prepar'd him A chalice for the nonce ; whereon but sipping, If he by chance escape your venom'd stuck, Our purpose may hold there.

But stay, what noise? Your sister's drown'd, Laertes. O, where? QUEEN: There is a willow grows askaunt the brook, That shows his hoary leaves in the glassy stream; beside gray with age Therewith fantastic garlands did she make Of crowflowers, nettles, daisies, and long purples , That liberal shepherds give a grosser name, But our cull-cold maids do dead men's fingers call them. There, on the pendant boughs her coronet weeds from its branches English orchids that bloom in spring Clamb'ring to hang, an envious sliver broke; When down her weedy trophies and herself Fell in the weeping brook.

Her clothes spread wide, And mermaid-like awhile they bore her up, Which time she chaunted snatches of old lauds ; songs of praise As one incapable of her own distress, Or like a creature native and indu'd Unto that element. But long it could not be Till that her garments, heavy with their drink, Pull'd the poor wretch from her melodious lay To muddy death. Adieu, my lord, I have a speech of fire that fain would blaze, But that this folly drowns it. How much I had to do to calm his rage! Now fear I this will give it start again, Therefore let's follow. The news of Ophelia's drowning serves as another instance of Shakespeare's interest in the theme of appearances versus reality. It poses the question of whether her madness led to an accidental death or whether her grief caused her to commit suicide.

He death also reignites Laertes's rage so that Claudius worries that the plan he hatched for a duel between Laertes and Hamlet might unravel. ACT V. A churchyard. The crowner hath sate on her, and finds it Christian burial. For here lies the point: if I drown myself wittingly, it argues an act, and an act hath three branches-- it is to act, to do, and to perform, argal, she drowned herself wittingly. Here lies the water; good. Here stands the man; good. If the man go to this water and drown himself, it is, will he, nill he , he goes, mark you that. But if the water come to him and drown him, he drowns not himself; argal, he that is not guilty of his own death shortens not his own life Come, my spade. There is no ancient gentlemen but gardeners, ditchers, and grave-makers: they hold up Adam's profession.

How dost thou understand the Scripture? The Scripture says Adam digg'd: could he dig without arms? The gallows does well; but how does it well? It does well to those that do ill. Now, thou dost ill to say the gallows is built stronger than the church; argal, the gallows may do well to thee. Go, get thee in; fetch me a sup of liquor. He sings at grave-making. How the knave jowls it to the ground, as if 'twere Cain's jawbone, that did the first murder! This might be the pate of a politician, throws head or skull which this ass now o'erreaches, one that would circumvent God, might it not? How dost thou, sweet lord? Here's fine revolution, missing the lower jawbone head and we had the trick to see't.

Did these bones cost no more the breeding but to play at loggets with 'em? Mine ache to think on't. Why may not that be the skull of a lawyer? Where be his quiddities now, his quillities , his cases, his tenures , and his tricks? This fellow might be in's time a great buyer of land, with his statutes, his recognizances, his fines, his double vouchers, his recoveries. Is this the fine of his fines, and the recovery of his recoveries, to have his fine head end pate full of fine dirt?

Will his vouchers vouch him no more of his purchases, and double ones too, than the length and breadth of a pair of indentures ? The very conveyances of his lands will scarcely lie in this box , and must the inheritor himself have no more, ha? I will speak to this fellow. Whose grave's this, sirrah? We must speak by the card, or equivocation will undo us. By the Lord, Horatio, these three years I have took note of it: the age is grown so picked that the toe of the peasant comes so near the heel of the courtier he galls his kibe.

Every fool can tell that. It was the very day that young Hamlet was born--he that is mad, and sent into England. He shall recover his wits there, or if he do not, it's no great matter there. I have been sexton here, man and boy, thirty years. A tanner will last you nine year. Here's a skull now hath lain in the earth three-and-twenty years. Whose do you think it was? Do not for ever with thy vailed lids Seek for thy noble father in the dust.

Hamlet Ay, madam, it is common. Claudius If it be, Why seems it so particular with thee? This sentence, which might be regarded as sensible advice for a mourner, is perceived as an FTA by Hamlet. His reply confirms this. Within a month, […] O most wicked speed! To post With such dexterity to incestuous sheets, It is not, nor it cannot come to good; But break, my heart, for I must hold my tongue. The soliloquy cannot be scored for im politeness in itself, since it is outside the realm of interaction; however, it provides precious information which allows genuine talk to be distinguished from strategic utterance. A number of points can be made in relation to this particular soliloquy. P and A are responsible for this self-censorship.

For murder, though it have no tongue, will speak With most miraculous organ. At the same time, he amplifies the off-recordness of his previous confrontation with Claudius and Gertrude by making it the foundational strategy of his feigned madness. Both strategies — madness and the play within the play — are alternative ways of expressing what cannot be said clearly and directly. He clumsily offers sympathy to his interlocutor and tries to verify his mental condition: Polonius How does my good Lord Hamlet? Hamlet Well, God-a-mercy. Polonius Do you know me, my lord?

Hamlet Excellent well, you are a fishmonger. Polonius Not I, my lord. Hamlet Then I would you were so honest a man. Polonius Honest, my lord? Hamlet Ay, sir, to be honest as this world goes is to be one man picked out of ten thousand. In fact, Hamlet combines a low-ranking person the fishseller and an immoral one the pander to suggest that Polonius is unworthy of being either. Hamlet For if the sun breed maggots in a dead dog being a god kissing carrion — Have you a daughter?

Polonius I have, my lord. Polonius [Aside] How say you by that? Still harping on my daughter. The choice to go off record to express this motif is also due to the fact that Hamlet is not ready at this stage to formulate a clear and overt accusation against his mother. His first soliloquy, analysed above 1. It is only after the play within the play that Hamlet becomes able to speak his mind to Gertrude in the closet scene. The carrion reference, then, encapsulates his dark feelings towards his mother and these inevitably contaminate his relationship with Ophelia too.

Off-record strategies thus prove to have a performative illocutionary force that becomes the core of the dramatic action. The mismatch between different planes of enunciation and the association of more than one meaning with the same referent reveals the arbitrariness of language and, by extension, the arbitrariness that actually governs the world. He often talks to interlocutors while actually addressing other people he has in mind. He thus interrupts the correspondence between the enunciation and its addressee, not only by opening signifiers to more than one signified but also by overlapping different addressees. Gertrude Hamlet, thou hast thy father much offended.

Hamlet Mother, you have my father much offended. Gertrude Come, come, you answer with an idle tongue. Hamlet Go, go, you question with a wicked tongue. Gertrude Why, how now, Hamlet! Gertrude thinks Hamlet is playing with her. Indeed, the Queen again reacts with a motherly rebuke line The DM why line 13 intensified by another DM how now line 12 , expresses surprise and contempt on the part of the Queen, who cannot believe her ears. Claudius Thy loving father, Hamlet. Hamlet My mother. Father and mother is man and wife. Man and wife is one flesh. So, my mother. Come, for England! Replacing father with mother is very effective; husband and wife, father and mother are interchangeable and therefore no longer correspond to fixed referents.

The decisive moment in relation to this switching of addressee between family members takes place in the play within the play: Hamlet This is one Lucianus, nephew to the King! Ophelia The King rises! In the play, Hamlet replaces the uncle Claudius with the nephew Hamlet himself , thus connecting the past with the future, and what happened in the past with the vengeance that he will eventually take when he kills the King.

Claudius is in fact so threatened by it that he leaves the performance. Although any number of intentions can be attributed to off-recordness in ordinary conversation, in Hamlet it can often be construed as impolite. Ophelia Good my lord, How does your honour for this many a day? Hamlet I humbly thank you, well. Ophelia My lord, I have remembrances of yours That I have longed long to redeliver; I pray you, now receive them.

Hamlet No, not I. I never gave you aught. Ophelia My honoured lord, you know right well you did. And with them words of so sweet breath composed As made these things more rich. Their perfume lost, Take these again for to the noble mind Rich gifts wax poor when givers prove unkind. There, my lord. Ophelia My lord? Hamlet Are you fair? Ophelia What means your lordship? Or, if thou wilt needs marry, marry a fool for wise men know well enough what monsters you make of them. To a nunnery go, and quickly too.

Ophelia Heavenly powers restore him. Hamlet I have heard of your paintings well enough God hath given you one face and you make yourselves another. It hath made me mad. I say we will have no more marriages. Those that are married already — all but one — shall Live. The rest shall keep as they are. To a nunnery, go! His off-record modality thus disturbs the correspondence between utterance, addressee and referent, but it also proves to be a device of dramatic irony that allows him to be simultaneously offensive — for the audience is able to evaluate the strength of his hidden FTAs and to understand that his true target is Gertrude — and defensive — for Ophelia line and the other characters can only perceive his aggression but not decipher the offence he cannot overtly express.

Im politeness in Hamlet emerges from this analysis as a stratified phenomenon with different functions in social interactions. The analytical process — covering a selection of scenes divided into sub-sequences — has shown the following: 1. The central action, which covers five acts, is technically a play-within-the play since it is embedded in the Induction — a framing story in which Sly, a tinker, is induced to believe he is a nobleman who has forgotten his original life. By the end of the sixteenth century, the word exclusively denoted talkative, disobedient women who dominated their husbands and were thus associated with devilish creatures.

The most effective reaction to the menace of uncontrolled women was to marginalise them through social and legal condemnation, and to neutralise their subversive potential by representing them as comic figures. In other words, fear of role inversion was counteracted by another inversion, in which the threat was mocked and derided and so turned into its opposite — something amusing and ridiculous.

The male-female antithesis encompasses all the others Mucci This chapter addresses the question of impoliteness in Taming of the Shrew by looking first at the two parts of the Induction 4. Sections 4. Speechact theory features strongly in this chapter as a methodological tool for investigating im politeness. Hostess A pair of stocks, you rogue! Sly You are a baggage: the Slys are no rogues. Look in the Chronicles; we came in with Richard Conqueror: therefore paucas pallabris, let the world slide. Hostess You will not pay for the glasses you have burst? Sly No, not a denier. Go by, Saint Jeronimy, go to thy cold bed and warm thee. Let him come, and kindly. But there is more. Thus, the reference not only provides comic mockery of a rival play — this was not unusual at the time among competitive dramatists — but also, and more subtly, establishes a form of parallelism between the violence of a play considered the epitome of staged brutality in the revenge tragedies of the time and the comic verbal violence of Taming of the Shrew.

Overall, the FTAs in this episode introduce verbal aggression while also raising a laugh. Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew, ed. Subsequent quotations of this play are taken from this edition. This links to the next sequence, shown below, involving the entrance of a real Lord and his attendants. This new episode is marked by a different tone and provides examples of conversation between people of different social ranks. Whereas in the exchange between Sly and the Hostess the P variable did not affect the interaction even though their impolite expressions and FTAs produced a high degree of riskiness R , in this second episode the P variable has a marked effect on the language and tone of the exchange: Wind horns.

Enter Lord from hunting [, two Huntsmen and others]. Sawst thou not, boy, how Silver made it good At the hedge corner, in the coldest fault? Trust me, I take him for the better dog. Thus, the BR directive seems to be mitigated by recourse to a negative polite strategy characterised by indirectness. In his reply, since the Huntsman low rank does not agree with the Lord high rank , he is required by convention to soften his disagreement. Unlike the exchange between Sly and the Hostess, which is marked by rudeness, here we see the principles of politeness in action, based on a difference in rank P. At this point the Lord notices Sly and thinks up the joke he wants to play on him.

Lord O monstrous beast, how like a swine he lies! Sirs, I will practise on this drunken man. The huntsman of The Taming of the Shrew is thus using a DM that may prove risky if directed at someone socially superior, a fact which requires the use of mitigations expressed as N5 and P13, as suggested in the analysis. These directives offer a full description of how a noble lord should be treated. They have been divided below into three sub-sequences based on their different functions. The first sequence helps the audience visualise how Sly will be carried into a chamber and prepared to unwittingly play the part of the nobleman: Lord Even as a flattering dream or worthless fancy.

Then take him up, and manage well the jest: Carry him gently to my fairest chamber, And hang it round with all my wanton pictures; Balm his foul head in warm distilled waters And burn sweet wood to make the lodging sweet; Procure me music ready when he wakes To make a dulcet and a heavenly sound; Ind. As well as providing insight into the life of an aristocrat, it also establishes the difference between the aristocracy and people of lower rank. The next sequence is a set of instructions for addressing Sly in a courteous linguistic register. Persuade him that he hath been lunatic, And when he says he is, say that he dreams, For he is nothing but a mighty lord. This do, and do it kindly, gentle sirs, It will be pastime passing excellent, If it be husbanded with modesty.

It thus provides a template for interpreting what will be staged in the play within the play about the taming of the shrew. These allusions to the construction of social roles are intensified by a reference to metatheatre, which emerges in a subsequent exchange between the Huntsman and the Lord: First Huntsman My lord, I warrant you we will play our part, [DP — Assertive] As he shall think by our true diligence [P10 — Assertive] He is no less than what we say he is. Lord Take him up gently and to bed with him, [BR — Imperative] And each one to his office when he wakes. Players We thank your honour. There is a lord will hear you play to-night; But I am doubtful of your modesties Lest, over-eyeing of his odd behaviour — For yet his honour never heard a play — You break into some merry passion And so offend him; for I tell you, sirs, If you should smile, he grows impatient.

A Player Fear not, my lord, we can contain ourselves, Were he the veriest antic in the world. When he welcomes the actors, offering them hospitality and asking for their services, the Lord uses a positive polite strategy P2 , showing friendliness. The deployment of a P13 strategy giving reasons for his request is, on the one hand, justified by his arrangement of the joke but, on the other, seems to be governed by the reflexive variable RF. This variable may be introduced as a typical feature of Renaissance courtesy, aimed at exhibiting a distinctive sign of superiority for the upper classes in early modern England: the Lord is offering something very politely to the actors certainly lower in rank and also distant from him , and this makes him appear generous and worthy of his higher rank.

The Lord does not reveal that Sly is not a nobleman — a fact which complicates the metatheatrical game. At the same time, Sly is the spectator of a play being performed by the professional actors; he knows they are acting but they do not know that they are part of a bigger spectacle. Tell him from me, as he will win my love, He bear himself with honourable action Such as he hath observed in noble ladies Unto their lords by them accomplished. Brown and Gilman score it -1 , which means it is a non-polite way of interfacing with H P power rather than RF reflexivity governs this impolite choice: the Lord does not feel the need to appear particularly courteous towards his own servant. Metatheatrical discourse is thus rendered using mechanisms of representation such as disguise, which is a device that extra- and intra-textually reveals identity to be a social and gendered artefact.

The transformation of the Page into a woman parallels the transformation of the boy-actor into a female character, thus foregrounding the artificiality of femininity on stage. In general, The Taming of the Shrew stages the construction of femininity and nobility in such a way as to arouse a sense of hilarity. However, it remains to be seen whether the ultimate aim is that of problematizing this construction or exposing it in order to exorcise its potential dangerousness.

Within this overall construction, the language of im politeness in the first part of the Induction scene is an essential component of identityformation. Courtesy is the distinctive ingredient in the construction of nobility, and is treated as something which is applied from outside. In the sequences examined so far, Sly, who cannot speak and who is not accustomed to finery, is surrounded by servants who address him with ennobling epithets. Third Servant What raiment will your honour wear to-day? Sly says that he is used to drinking only common beverages line 1 and the three servants in turn offer him drink, food and clothes P10 strategy. Lord Heaven cease this idle humour in your honour! He explains his negative directive using a P13 strategy, giving reasons for his denial: honorifics are not a good match for poor clothing and bad habits — an assertion that confirms the social aspect of DP and of courtesy in general.

The lord is more deferential than Sly for humorous purposes. Where is my wife? Page Here, noble lord! What is thy will with her? Page My husband and my lord, my lord and husband; [N5] I am your wife in all obedience. Sly I know it well — What must I call her? Lord Madam. So lords call ladies. This truth is comically followed by a brief exchange in which the Lord is taught how to address his wife see lines — However, this passage can also be read at another level.

Impoliteness, on the other hand, is expressed through taboo words and BR directives without redressive action. If either of you both love Katherina, Because I know you well and love you well, Leave shall you have to court her at your pleasure. He presents himself authoritatively but subsequently uses two polite strategies to mitigate his previous directive: P13, through which he gives reasons for his behaviour, and P15, which serves to express his empathy with the suitors.

There, there, Hortensio, will you any wife? Here, the effect is impolite rather than polite, insofar as it aims to mock Katherina. In his analysis of the passage, Culpeper underlines how the pun manages to create a connection between opposite meanings through recourse to assonance between the sounds of the two verbs. However, it is argued here that it also refers to the sphere of scolds and shrews. As shown in the first section, Mucci has described the mocking practices of the carting and ducking to which shrews were subjected. Her defensive strategy is coloured by politeness when addressing her father and by impoliteness when talking to her suitors. The deferential tone she uses is a highly strategic choice. Her deference in this case would be designed to provoke the suitors.

How mean you that? On the one hand, she uses the third person to distance herself from her interlocutors, who evidently cause her offence and embarrassment. Why does she do this? Katherina strategically increases this distance and makes it a sign of her discomfort by mimicking her own objectification. By appropriating it in this way she is able to produce a formidable FTA, and indeed Hortensio reacts as if he had been slapped in the face: Hortensio From all such devils, good Lord deliver us!

Gremio And me too, good Lord! Peace, Tranio. Shakespeare exploits cultural schemata that are known by the audience of his time in order to create precise expectations about what a shrew can do. At the same time, however, the schemata are complicated by the addition of personal motivations to the construction of characters. Patriarchy in the late sixteenth century referred to the power of the father over all members of his household […]. Early modern culture was resolutely hierarchical, with women, no matter what their wealth or rank, theoretically under the rule of men.

Deviation from the patriarchal norm, however, does not produce effective agency but results in open condemnation. The effect generated by the juxtaposition of the two sisters is that of enclosing Katherina and Bianca in fixed roles, both recognizable to an Elizabethan audience. Act Two opens with a highly relevant exchange between the sisters. See thou dissemble not. Bianca Believe me, sister, of all the men alive I never yet beheld that special face Which I could fancy more than any other. Katherina Minion, thou liest. Katherina O then, belike you fancy riches more: You will have Gremio to keep you fair. Bianca Is it for him you do envy me so?

Nay then, you jest, and now I well perceive You have but jested with me all this while. I prithee, sister Kate, untie my hands. Katherina If that be jest, then all the rest was so. Strikes her 2. However, whereas Katherina uses performative commands line 8 , Bianca gives the impression of paying lip-service to Katherina, which gives Katherina licence to exert power over her line 10— Katherina is not being linguistically strategic here, since she utters non-redressed FTA against Bianca.

Bianca, on the other hand, tries to use politeness strategies to appease her sister. However, these attempts to mollify her sister are unsuccessful. This is perhaps a sign that Katherina recognises the strategies of others and is able to resist them by her mastery of language, as in the suitors scene, or by physical and verbal aggression, as occurs with Bianca. He is interested in a profitable marriage, so he asks Baptista for permission to woo the young woman: Petruccio Signor Baptista, my business asketh haste, And every day I cannot come to woo. You knew my father well, and in him me, Left solely heir to all his lands and goods, Which I have bettered rather than decreased.

His speech, however, is characterised by a widespread use of bald on-record statements in lines — and Petruccio, like Katherina, is a direct and bald speaker, but in his case these qualities do not provoke comment because he is a man. Enter Katherina. But here she comes, and now, Petruccio, speak. Katherina Well have you heard, but something hard of hearing: They call me Katherine that do talk of me. To make matters worse, he refers to rumours about what other people are saying about Katherina: he thus implicitly hints at the shrew schemata of which he had been informed by Hortensio.

In his reply, quoted below, Petruccio exploits a different strategy to force Katherina to look at herself differently. It relies on the reversal of the shrew schemata and the presentation of the shrew as the paragon of Renaissance femininity. They claim that in comedy this strategy is typically used by men towards women and, indeed, Petruccio attributes these qualities to Katherina. Overall, he employs a wide range of positive politeness forms within a general framework of strategic mockery.

In good time, let him that moved you hither Re-move you hence. I knew you at the first You were a moveable. Overall, the effect is one of positive impoliteness urging Petruccio to leave her presence. Counting on her verbal dexterity, she decides to mimic Petruccio with the same mock-polite strategy but with the different aim of producing an FTA that is comically offensive. The language mechanisms of flyting are well explained in William Labov See also Leslie Anouk Katherina If I be waspish, best beware my sting.

Petruccio My remedy is then to pluck it out. Katherina Ay, if the fool could find it where it lies. Petruccio Who knows not where a wasp does wear his sting? In his tail. Katherina In his tongue. Petruccio Whose tongue? Katherina Yours, if you talk of tails, and so farewell. Petruccio What, with my tongue in your tail? She strikes him 2. The recourse to rhythmic and witty language can be interpreted in two ways: on the one hand, the battle of words between Katherina and Petruccio can be seen simply as part of the creation of a conflict that will subsequently be played out and resolved over the course of the play.

This sense of safety is further emphasised by the fact that the quarrel between Katherina and Petruccio is presented as a representation, a mere spectacle watched by both Sly and the theatre audience. Thus, the gender issue is problematized through recourse to polite strategies in a very sophisticated way: patriarchy and the cultural background of the household, each with its own set of schemata and expectations, are turned into a show for the entertainment of two sets of audiences through language strategies. In this perspective, verbal and gender saliency resides in the skill and wit that Katherina and Petruccio are able to exhibit.

When Baptista re-enters, Petruccio gives a completely false description of his earlier interaction with Katherina: Baptista Now, Signor Petruccio, how speed you with my daughter? Petruccio How but well, sir? How but well? It were impossible I should speed amiss. Baptista then questions his daughter, who on this occasion offers a bald on-record impolite answer: Baptista Why, how now, daughter Katherina! Katherina Call you me daughter?

Her impoliteness is negative when addressed to Baptista, in that she is trying to offend his negative face constructed around his public role as a father lines — , whereas when addressing Petruccio, her impoliteness attacks his positive face since her derogatory comments are aimed at his self-esteem lines — In fact, he turns her third person insult into a third person narrative description i. He juxtaposes definitions from the shrew schema with his own description of her attitudes and manners.

Tranio Is this your speeding? Nay, then, goodnight our part. Petruccio Be patient, gentlemen. I will to Venice. Sunday comes apace. Exeunt Petruccio and Katherina 2. Petruccio invites Katherina to kiss him. Although the previous lines were quite clear about her discomfort, it is impossible to infer what she desires or expects, especially after the kiss, as she subsequently says nothing about it or the wedding announcement. Reading this extract through the prism of im polite strategies, we might say that her silence can be interpreted as being both a polite and an impolite strategy.

As in section 4. Good Lord, how bright and goodly shines the moon! Katherina asserts the autonomy of her thoughts; she knows what reality is and that Petruccio is transforming it through language. The difference between the two types of speech act lies in their relation to referents: constatives describe reality and can be true or false, whereas performatives create reality and do not rely on referentiality. According to a later systematization, constatives become a sub-category of performatives, since their performative nature is dependent on the pragmatic use that speakers put them to. The above passage offers a perfect example of how the two categories work. Petruccio starts the sequence with a false constative, claiming that the sun is the moon line 2 , which turns out to be a performative insofar as it is strategically aimed at subduing Katherina.

Katherina asserts what is evidently the truth: the sun is the sun constative. Her constative is performative inasmuch as it is grounded in something Petruccio cannot control. This makes him desperate. Katherina Forward, I pray, since we have come so far, And be it moon or sun or what you please, And if you please to call it a rush-candle, Henceforth I vow it shall be so for me. Petruccio I say it is the moon. For the first time in her interaction with others she introduces politeness — the strategic use of a conventional indirect request.

However, if we align her recourse to politeness N1 with the subsequent strategy, the pattern of continuity between the two linguistic choices suggests that Katherina is being mock-polite and mocking her own performance of consent: Petruccio Nay, then you lie; it is the blessed sun. Katherina Then God be blest, it is the blessed sun, But sun it is not, when you say it is not, [PP] And the moon changes even as your mind.

What you will have it named, even that it is, [PP] And so it shall be so for Katherine. Petruccio Well, forward, forward, thus the bowl should run, And not unluckily against the bias. In fact, up to this point the exchange resembles flyting in reverse, with rhythmic courtesies being used instead of rhythmic insults. Again, she becomes both the subject and object of the speech, but this time a change has taken place which involves im politeness. Whereas her first appearance was marked by impoliteness, here she is almost too polite, mockingly polite.

The parallelism between the two scenes and the two strategies suggests that the initial impoliteness and the final politeness are mirror-strategies. In the end, she plays the obedient wife. This hypothesis is corroborated by the gender construction presented in the Induction — that of the Page turning into a lady — and proposed as a supplement of another identity construction based on courtesy — that of Sly turning into a Lord. Politeness in both cases plays an important role as a linguistic strategy informing the two formations of subjectivity. If the Induction and the play-within-the play stage how language shapes people, the metatheatrical exposition of the artificiality of such an operation provides a counterconstruction that relativises the entire comedy by performing performance.

A pattern of discernment and deferential politeness has emerged, as prescribed by politeness theory and responding to the variables P and D; Strategic im politeness has proved to be more unpredictable; it is mainly used in the exchanges between the protagonist Katherina and her husband Petruccio. Most of the meanings inferred from the exchanges between characters in the play derive their pragmatic significance, i. In the same way, the initial cultural contextualisation of the play served to explore the gender dynamics at its heart.

This pragmatic investigation of exchanges in which im polite speech acts were salient for textual interpretation has also been combined with socio-cultural contextualisation inferred from newhistoricist and semiotic theory. Within specific early modern cultural parameters, im polite language has been discussed as an important component of Renaissance subjectivity, resulting from the emergence of cognition affected by facework. The manner in which characters talk and think in any novel or play illustrates what type of character he or she is and their importance to the novel or play. In Hamlet, there are many distinct and bold characters and many inert and dull characters.

The way Shakespeare develops and distinguishes the characters is through language. Characters such as Hamlet and Horatio use colourful and sharp words which helps the reader to fully understand the complexity of their nature. In this speech Hamlet shows the distaste he has for his uncle and expresses it with passionate and self-assured voice. On the other hand, characters such as Marcellus and Laertes use hollow and lifeless words. Marcellus does not think about the ghost walking around and its importance, instead he is too worried about the simple questions, such as are we going to war. This shows that the way a character talks can bring life to the play and show the reader who the significant and dynamic characters are and who the uninteresting and static characters are.

The plot of a play brings the reader into the story and helps them connect with it in a deeper way. The plot of Act I brings the reader in to the play by illustrating that no matter what you do in life, you always strive for more power. In the first act of Hamlet, Shakespeare is able to show the reader the characters' importance through the use of language and use the plot to help the reader connect with the play. As a reader, I feel that the use of the language and the plot helps connect the lives of the characters to my own. Therefore, in Act One of Hamlet, the use of the language and plot is important in the development of the characters. In life, you give a little, you get a little. But in literature, Shakespeare gives a little and the audience gets a lot.

Shakespeare achieves this by utilizing expressive dialogue and vivid imagery. This is evident in his ability to introduce setting, character, and conflict in Act One of Hamlet. In the first fifteen lines, Shakespeare effectively illustrates the setting. It is nearly thirty seconds into the play and the audience is captivated by visuals and characterization. From these two lines, this audience gathers that Hamlet is sarcastic, smart, depressed, and still in a state of mourning.

As well, Hamlet refuses to display any form of respect towards the king, due to pure hatred for his incestuous deeds. As said before, with Shakespeare, you are given little and, in turn, retrieve a lot. He uses strong imagery, figurative language, metaphors and puns, all for the readers benefit. His writing encourages readers to go further with the text; to find deeper meaning and therefore become closer with the characters and their situations. This is, in my opinion, the most interesting aspect of Act One. Taking into consideration that the play was written centuries ago, with language that is, at times, more than difficult to interpret without explanation, the story is surprisingly easily related to modern times.

The play, with its countless tragic characters and calamities, seems, at first glance, implausible and farfetched. Written lifetimes ago and centered on the families of European royalties, relating to Hamlet was not an expectation I had before reading. Mental turmoil, chaos, revenge, and manipulation — whether willingly admitted or denied — are aspects of the average life. Injected with the discovery that the entire plot is archetypical, the inability to see the analogous factors is diminished entirely.

Readers are introduced to Elsinore, Denmark, a setting full of characters in a state of desperation. At one point or another, a majority of people can acknowledge that they have been encouraged or otherwise motivated, to seek revenge. In scene two, readers are subjected to a chess match of words between Hamlet and the second pivotal character of the play, Claudius. Claudius, a dominating figure throughout the act, who is able to manipulate an entire congregation of people with a simple speech, finds his match in stepson, Hamlet.

Scene three is the easiest to relate to for it deals with familial relations, similar to that of Claudius and Hamlet. Siblings Laertes and Ophelia share a relationship that is typical between brothers and sisters of this generation, proving that, although certain things change over the centuries, people remain the same. Laertes looks out for Ophelia the way any older brother would, and Ophelia responds the way any younger sister would. Polonius, father of Laertes and Ophelia, is the Prime Minister of Denmark, and at times, is more concerned with maintaining his reputation than the needs of his children. For the most part, Polonius reacts as any father would. However, his reputation should not be his leading concern in this situation.

Before reading, I had not expected to relate to the play in the slightest. To my surprise, it took less than one act, to realize that the play was entirely archetypical. Hamlet proves that, though fashion, music and language may change over time, people, and the relationships between them, do not. Love, Supernatural Forces, and Vengeance The initial events in the plot of most literary works introduce characters and settings, set the mood, and highlight major themes. In Act 1 in Hamlet, the author introduces different themes for the reader. These themes are developed through events that reveal who the characters are and how they behave.

In Act 1 of his play Hamlet, Shakespeare introduces love, supernatural forces, and vengeance as major themes to contribute in revealing the identity and behavior of the major characters. She is forced to leave Hamlet because Polonius is sad to hear that his daughter is in love with a weak teenager who is constantly depressed. The love that exists between Hamlet and Ophelia also shows the great love and care Polonius has for Ophelia, his only daughter. He calls women frail because he views them as weak. The reader gets the idea that Hamlet is a weak, depressed teenager that loves his father and Ophelia, but is too stubborn and will not get over them.

The love theme that exists in Act 1 reveals the qualities of Hamlet and the characters he interacts with. Supernatural forces, or ghosts, are revealed to the audience in the first several pages to create suspense and present Hamlet as a respectable, strong character. I charge thee, speak! This shows that Horatio is a curious person and a good friend to Hamlet who would do anything to protect the castle.

However, when the Ghost does not answer him, he believes that it has to answer to Hamlet. This tells the audience that Horatio respects Hamlet and views him as a strong person who is capable of doing what he cannot. The mysterious ghost sightings not only increase the suspense in the play, but also reveal to the reader that Hamlet is a respectable, strong character.

This shows that Hamlet will do anything for his father because he loves and honors him. This tells the audience that Claudius is the murderer. Also, Hamlet wants the three guards, including Horatio, to keep this incident a secret. In Act 1 of his play Hamlet, Shakespeare introduces love, supernatural forces, and vengeance as major themes to reveal to the reader the identity and behavior of major characters. These themes are linked to major events that show the personalities of Hamlet and the characters he interacts with.

They help the reader foreshadow future events. In everyday life we are posed with challenges to overcome, and goals to accomplish. In Act 1 of Hamlet many challenges and goals are placed before the characters. These challenges come in many different forms such as the death of a father, the remarrying of a mother and how one copes with grief. Lastly, the goal that is present is the obligation to obey a father. The number of challenges in Act 1 are numerous, that cause varying problems for the characters. Grief is handled differently by everyone, and no matter the circumstance nobody has the right to tell you how to grieve. She wants him to grow up and move on from the death of his father. I think Hamlet should take as long as he wants to grieve because he just lost his father, and he will come to peace with it in his own time.

Therefore Hamlet wants one thing from her, and once he gets it he will not be apart of her life anymore. The love that she had for him will be no more. Even though Laertes may or may not be right, he should allow his sister to Experience life and make her own mistakes. The main goal was the obligation to obey a father. Both Ophelia and Hamlet suffered with this obligation. The ghost leaves Hamlet with the obligation to avenge his father through the death of the new king, his uncle Cladius. I feel that Hamlet is right in a way to want tog et revenge for his father, but it should be his choice not the obligation to avenge his father.

The way this goal affects Ophelia is with her father telling her that he forbids her to see Hamlet. You speak like a green girl, Unsifted in such perilous circumstance. Do you believe his tenders, as you call them? Come your ways. I agree with Polonius looking out for his daughter, but I feel he needs to let go of her, she is growing up and needs to learn from her own mistakes. In act 1 of Hamlet the characters are faced with challenges and goals that are put before them throughout each scene in act 1. Some of which we are faced with everyday.

We all need to have our own experiences so that we can learn from them as well as grow from them. If these experiences were controlled by the people around us we would not learn anything, therefore we could not grow and learn from our mistakes. In Act 1 we come to terms with the many similarities between Fortinbras and Hamlet. However better yet we see the tremendous differences that distinguish them apart. Both Hamlet and Fortinbras have lost their fathers to unnatural deaths. Fortinbras father was killed ironically, by Hamlets father in war.

Fortinbras was Prince so was next in line to be king. However his uncle took the throne. But Fortinbras wants to avenge his father, so he plans to kill the king of Denmark. He gathers an army and is a force to reckon with. Likewise Hamlets father is also dead. King Hamlet was killed by his dear brother Claudius. Hamlet who was also Prince was next in line. But just like Fortinbras his Uncle took the throne, and even a little more, as Claudius married to his mother. Hamlet finds this very strange and is very angered by the whole situation.

All in all the deaths so cold to both Hamlet and Fortinbras lead to anger and revenge. In order for revenge to occur something horrible must happen to the person who is seeking revenge, something that angers them and drives them insane. This something has occurred in the lives of both Fortinbras and Hamlet. Fortinbras revenge is towards who, that killed his father. It is the same situation for Hamlet. He also wants to kill the person who killed is father. However his situation is rather worst. As it did not only have elements of brutality, but more painfully was a betrayal. Which just makes revenge a more powerful and complicated thing. Hamlets uncle, Claudius was the person who killed his father. He poisoned him, took his throne, his lady, everything.

Co-indecently, the recipient of revenge for both Hamlet and Fortinbras is King Claudius. It is rather ironic. But even though they both want and are obligated to revenge against Claudius, they are in different situations and they will also take very different approaches to seeking their revenge. Fortinbras is the more direct approach, he wants to attack Denmark, and kill King Claudius. He plans on doing this by acting crazy. Hamlet and Fortinbras have the same target but there approaches of hitting that target are very different. To conclude, there are many similarities between Hamlet and Fortinbras. There are a whole lot of similarities and little differences.

But it is with those very differences that put them in completely different situations. That has them making different decisions and expose their differences in personality. I find it interesting that I can relate to the situations written in the play, which was plotted hundreds of years ago. I came to realise that much of what they say to each other is the same as what we would say to one another, just in a more complex manner.

He does not believe that Hamlet truly loves his daughter, but more that he is using her. I do know, when the blood burns, how prodigal the soul lends the tongue vows. These blazes, daughter, giving more light then heat, extinct in both even in their promise, as it is a making, you must not take for fire. I can relate to having an over protective father, and it is surprising to see this situation in a play that was written so long ago.

He tells his daughter that Hamlet is too young to be able to make any statements of love or commitment to her, and that she must not speak with him again. I could relate to Ophelia and her relationship with her father and the discussions that took place. Although Ophelia agrees to end her relationship with Hamlet, I do not think this will be the end of them.

Hamlet is struggling with grief following his fathers death and his mothers decision to re-marry, to his uncle no less, which only adds to his depression. Hamlet uses sarcasm to get across to his friends that he is not okay with what his mother did. It is used to make people look stupid, and also to show dissatisfaction with something. Act 1 introduced complex relationships between characters to the reader. The stage has been set for the rest of the play. In conclusion I found Act 1 to be very interesting because I can relate to it. I have noted that people will continue to have important discussions and relationships.

Even though the world around us has changed immensely the relationship between ourselves and others will not. I guess some things never change. It gives the idea that what has already occurred may occur again in a different way. The feeling of being uneasy has reoccurred throughout act 1, implementing that it will continue to occur throughout the play. It begins on a cold night, at midnight, with guards feeling uneasy about their surroundings.

Get thee to bed, Francisco. This shows that coldness and darkness will be a part of the rest of the play. Another incident that emphasizes this is when the ghost appears as King Hamlet in armour. It indicates that there must be a battle, and that the dead king wants to fight. Therefore, the feeling of uneasiness within the characters throughout act 1 indicates that it may be prevalent within the play. Another aspect that I feel will be reoccurring throughout the play is a sence of struggle, especially within Hamlet. She wants him to give up on the death of his father, but he is struggling to do so.

He does not understand how she could move on as fast as she did. I believe that beginning the play with Hamlet facing so many struggles will result him in facing many other struggles in the future. Lastly, I noticed that the feeling of obligation would be reoccurring throughout the play. Hamlet feels obligated to take revenge on Claudius in order to fulfill the wishes of his dead father. He will do anything to get revenge on Claudius for what he did. Another situation in which a character is obligated to act in a certain way is when Polonius decides he does not want Hamlet and Ophelia to see each other.

He is obligated to keep his reputation through Ophelia. He does not want his daughter to make a mistake with Hamlet, as his reputation is in jeopardy. The feeling of obligation has occurred many times throughout act 1, and gives a feeling that it will occur again throughout the play. Different scenes throughout act 1 give a feeling that they may occur again sometime throughout the rest of the play. For example, he reveals parallelism quite early through the characters and plot. However what is most intriguing about Act One is that Shakespeare completely contradicts the idea of parallelism within those same characters.

He contrasts Hamlet and Laertes, Polonius and King Claudius, and scene one and two, to compare the unique characteristics of each other and, perhaps, send the same message. Hamlet and Laertes are two central characters introduced in Act One in which Shakespeare uses obvious contrast in them, rather than parallelism, to reveal their characters. In Act One, Shakespeare reveals Hamlet as a depressed soul, overwhelmed with grief and sulking around the castle.

This shows the active, compassionate Laertes commanding his sister to do what he says. Likewise, King Claudius and Polonius are contrasted to compare their unique characters. For instance, when they give their sons advice or when they simply speak to them, their characters are shown through this contrast. The contrast that Shakespeare uses between these two characters reveals distinct dimensions within them.

Although the father and son speech is paralleled excellently, the manner in which each man delivers it differs convincingly. Finally, and perhaps most interestingly, scene one and two of Act One contrast not to compare each other, but to send forth one message to the audience. Scene one establishes a dark and eerie atmosphere, where the ghost of King Hamlet represents the unbalanced situation in Denmark. Horatio is concerned that this image of their former King is foreshadowing the future of Denmark as a dark one. In scene two, however, this same message is revealed in contrast to scene one. This scene is of a cheerful court, where the recently crowned King Claudius tries to pretend that nothing is wrong.

However, the speech he gives about his dead brother and his new marriage gives an uneasy feeling to the audience, suggesting that Denmark is unstable as a nation, and that the court of King Claudius is a corrupt one. Both scene one and two send the same message, the ill state of Denmark, in two contrasting approaches. Shakespeare uses contradiction in three different examples in Act One to illustrate distinct characteristics. He contrasts Hamlet to Laertes, and King Claudius to Polonius, but uses two contrasting scenes to bring forth the same message. In Act One of Hamlet, this is the most intriguing aspect because Shakespeare steers away from parallelism, an ingenious device, and uses something completely opposite to illustrate more aspects and dimensions of the play.

Everyone experiences life altering situations in their existence. It can make people experience all sorts of emotions. Almost everyone has felt as if their lives were no longer worth living, and have thought about what the world would be like without them. His mind is trapped with conflicting thoughts of suicide. Committing suicide is a sin, so Hamlet is aware that there is no escape by killing himself.

O God! The fact that suicide is a sin and an act against God makes it the only thing preventing him from doing it. Some situations people are faced with can result in entrapment or obligation, one way or another. Some conditions in life bring about certain circumstances that make one feel obligated to do something about it. When Hamlet first sees the ghost of his father, it beckons him to follow. Here, he explains to Horatio that he values his life to be as worthless as a pin. The man with nothing to lose is the most dangerous. Hamlet has nothing to lose and becomes very dangerous when the ghost speaks to him. Hamlet, wants to have the final word on what is to come for his uncle. He writes the last words from the ghost of his father in a notebook, to serve as a reminder that he will never forget to avenge him.

He feels compelled for vengeance, and believes his life is worthless without payback. Once again Hamlet is cornered. He must seek revenge because he is the son, who is burdened with the reality that the only reason for his existence is to correct this evil deed. Hamlet is alone with his thoughts and no longer has anyone turn to. Hamlet is facing a lot of grief after the death of his father. At the same time, he sees his own mother moving on almost instantly and is quite disturbed by her actions. Hamlet is perplexed at the idea that his mother could marry again so suddenly. In his mind, he believes the tears she shed, were not even genuine.

He compares the fact that his mother moved on faster than a race horse moving from post to post. Claudius was there to satisfy that appetite. Hamlet compares frailty to a woman. In his time period, women were seen as delicate possessions, which were emotionally weak and vulnerable. Hamlet explains how a beast that lacks the power of reason, would have mourned longer than his own mother. He compares Claudius to his father and sees Claudius as nothing.

To him, he is someone who is simply worthless just as he himself is weak and worthless compared to Hercules. Some people experience an internal struggle in situations showing no escape. There can be a feeling of obligation to do something based on the events experienced. Individuals can even be considered so brittle, that moving on from devastating events so rapidly appear sinful. Life is full of ups and downs, twists and turns, and even surprises. All these aspects of living can make an individual erupt with a multitude of feelings where in turn, alter life itself.

King Claudius obtains a positive view to the audience by having the ability to manipulate situations to his favour, subtly without causing suspicion from the audience. This skill and being the new King also allows him to have control over many characters in the play.

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